Experiments in Fluids

, 54:1505 | Cite as

Spatial filtering improved tomographic PIV

  • Stefano DiscettiEmail author
  • Andrea Natale
  • Tommaso Astarita
Research Article


Tomographic reconstruction accuracy is of fundamental importance to obtain reliable three-dimensional three-components velocity field measurements when implementing tomographic particle image velocimetry. Algebraic methods (Herman and Lent 1976) are quite well established to handle the problem in case of high spatial frequency spots on a dark background imaged by a limited number of simultaneous views; however, their efficacy is limited in case of dense distributions to be reconstructed. In the present work, an easy implementable modified version of the commonly used multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is proposed, allowing a remarkable improvement of the tomographic reconstruction quality only slightly increasing the computational cost. The technique is based on artificial diffusion applied by Gaussian smoothing after each iteration of the reconstruction procedure. Numerical simulations show that the increase in the reconstruction quality leads to a significant reduction of the modulation effects in the velocity measurement due to the coherent ghost particles motion. An experimental application in fractal grid turbulence highlights an improvement of the signal strength and a reduction of the uncertainty in the velocity measurement.


Modulation Transfer Function Tomographic Reconstruction Source Density Depth Direction Ghost Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Prof. Ronald J. Adrian (Arizona State University) for providing useful advices, discussions, and the facilities for the experimental test. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No.265695.


  1. Adrian RJ (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 23:261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astarita T (2006) Analysis of interpolation schemes for image deformation methods in PIV: effect of noise on the accuracy and on the spatial resolution. Exp Fluids 40:977–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Astarita T (2009) Adaptive space resolution for PIV. Exp Fluids 46:1115–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astarita T, Cardone G (2005) Analysis of interpolation schemes for image deformation methods in PIV. Exp Fluids 38:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson C, Soria J (2007) Algebraic reconstruction techniques for tomographic particle image velocimetry. In: Proceedings of 16th Australasian fluid mechanics conference, Gold Coast, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson C, Soria J (2009) An efficient simultaneous reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 47:553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson C, Coudert S, Foucaut JM, Stanislas M, Soria J (2011) The accuracy of tomographic particle image velocimetry for measurements of a turbulent boundary layer. Exp Fluids 50:1031–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Silva CM, Baidya R, Khashehchi M, Marusic I (2012) Assessment of tomographic PIV in wall-bounded turbulence using direct numerical simulation data. Exp Fluids 52:425–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Silva CM, Baidya R, Marusic I (2013) Enhancing Tomo-PIV reconstruction quality by reducing ghost particles. Meas Sci Technol 24:024010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Discetti S, Astarita T (2012a) A fast multi-resolution approach to tomographic PIV. Exp Fluids 52:765–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Discetti S, Astarita T (2012b) Fast 3D PIV with direct cross correlations. Exp Fluids 53:1437–1451. doi: 10.1007/s00348-012-1370-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Discetti S, Ziskin IB, Astarita T, Adrian RJ (2013) PIV measurements of anisotropy and inhomogeneity in decaying fractal generated turbulence (in press in Fluid Dyn Reas)Google Scholar
  13. Elsinga GE, Scarano F, Wieneke B, van Oudheusden B (2006a) Tomographic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 41:933–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elsinga GE, Van Oudheusden BW, Scarano F (2006b) Experimental assessment of tomographic-PIV accuracy. In: 13th international symposium on applications of laser techniques to fluid mechanics, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  15. Elsinga GE, Westerweel J, Scarano F, Novara M (2011) On the velocity of ghost particles and the bias errors in tomographic-PIV. Exp Fluids 50:825–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herman GT, Lent A (1976) Iterative reconstruction algorithms. Comput Biol Med 6:273–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hurst DJ, Vassilicos JC (2007) Scalings and decay of fractal generated turbulence. Phys Fluids 19:035103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maas HG, Gruen A, Papantoniou D (1993) Particle tracking velocimetry in three-dimensional flows. Exp Fluids 15:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Novara M, Scarano F (2012) Performances of motion tracking enhanced Tomo-PIV on turbulent shear flows. Exp Fluids 52:1027–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Novara M, Batenburg KJ, Scarano F (2010) Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV. Meas Sci Technol 21(3):035401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tsai RY (1987) A versatile camera calibration technique for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses. IEEE J Rob Autom 4: RA-3Google Scholar
  22. Westerweel J, Scarano F (2005) Universal outlier detection for PIV data. Exp Fluids 39:1096–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wieneke B (2008) Volume self-calibration for 3D particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 45:549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Worth NA, Nickels TB (2008) Acceleration of Tomo-PIV by estimating the initial volume intensity distribution. Exp Fluids 45:847–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Worth NA, Nickels TB, Swaminathan N (2010) A tomographic PIV resolution study based on homogeneous isotropic turbulence DNS data. Exp Fluids 49:637–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Discetti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Natale
    • 1
  • Tommaso Astarita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS)University of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations