Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 1057–1071 | Cite as

Three-dimensional PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body

  • Young Jin Jeon
  • Hyung Jin SungEmail author
Research Article


A three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry measurement technique capable of simultaneously monitoring 3D fluid flows and the structure of an arbitrarily moving surface embedded in the flow was proposed with a heavy emphasis on image processing methods. The costs associated with the experimental apparatus were reduced by recording the surface and the trace particles at one image plane without the use of additional cameras or illumination devices. An optimal exposure time for surface and particle imaging was identified using red fluorescent tracer particles in conjunction with a long-pass glass filter. The particle image and surface image were then separated using an image separation process that relied on the feature scaling differences between the particles and the surface texture. A feature detection process and a matching process facilitated estimation of the 3D surface points, and the 3D surface structure was modeled by Delaunay triangulation. The particle volume reconstruction algorithm constrained the voxels inside the surface structure to zero values to minimize ghost particle generation. Volume self-calibration was employed to improve the reconstruction quality and the triangulation accuracy. To conserve computing resources in the presence of numerous zero voxels, the MLOS-SMART reconstruction and the direct non-zero voxel cross-correlation method were applied. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around an eccentric rotating cylinder and a flapping flag were conducted to validate the present technique.


Particle Image Velocimetry Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement Particle Image Velocimetry Image Ghost Particle Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2012-0000246) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea.


  1. Atkinson C, Soria J (2009) An efficient simultaneous reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 47:553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Doh DH, Hwang TG, Jo HJ, Pyeon YB, Cho YB, Tanaka K, Takei M (2006) Non-contact 3D flow-structure interaction measurement (FSIM) system for motion and flow fields. J Vis 9:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Elsinga GE, Scarano F, Wieneke B, van Oudheusden BW (2006) Tomographic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 41:933–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hartley RI, Sturm P (1997) Triangulation. Comput Vis Image Underst 68:146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hwang TG, Doh DH, Jo HJ, Tsubokura M, Piao B, Kuroda S, Kobayashi T, Tanaka K, Takei M (2007) Analysis of fluid-elastic-structure interactions in an impinging jet with a dynamic 3D-PTV and non-contact 6D-motion tracking system. Chem Eng J 130:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jeon YJ, Sung HJ (2011) PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body. Exp Fluids 50:787–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lee DT, Schachter BJ (1980) Two algorithms for constructing a Delaunay triangulation. Int J Comput Inform Sci 9(3):219–242MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lenz RK, Tsai RY (1998) Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 10:713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Novara M, Batenburg KJ, Scarano F (2010) Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV. Meas Sci Technol 21:035401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Russ JC (2002) The image processing handbook, 4th edn. RaleighGoogle Scholar
  11. Scarano F, Riethmuller ML (2000) Advances in iterative multigrid PIV image processing. Exp Fluids 29:S51–S60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tanaka G, Ishitsu Y, Okamoto K, Madarame H (2002) Simultaneous measurements of free-surface and turbulence interaction using specklegram method and stereo-PIV. In: Proceedings of the 11th international symposium on applications of laser techniques for fluid mechanics, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  13. Weng J, Chhen P, Herniou M (1992) Camera calibration with distortion models and accuracy evaluation. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 14:965–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Westerweel J, Scarano F (2005) Universal outlier detection for PIV data. Exp Fluids 39:1096–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wieneke B (2008) Volume self-calibration for 3D particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 45:549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Worth NA, Nickels TB (2008) Acceleration of Tomo-PIV by estimating the initial volume intensity distribution. Exp Fluids 45:847–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKAISTDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations