Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 51–76 | Cite as

Quantifying the dynamics of flow within a permeable bed using time-resolved endoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (EPIV)

  • G. BloisEmail author
  • G. H. Sambrook Smith
  • J. L. Best
  • R. J. Hardy
  • J. R. Lead
Research article


This paper presents results of an experimental study investigating the mean and temporal evolution of flow within the pore space of a packed bed overlain by a free-surface flow. Data were collected by an endoscopic PIV (EPIV) technique. EPIV allows the instantaneous velocity field within the pore space to be quantified at a high spatio-temporal resolution, thus permitting investigation of the structure of turbulent subsurface flow produced by a high Reynolds number freestream flow (Re s in the range 9.8 × 103–9.7 × 104). Evolution of coherent flow structures within the pore space is shown to be driven by jet flow, with the interaction of this jet with the pore flow generating distinct coherent flow structures. The effects of freestream water depth, Reynolds and Froude numbers are investigated.


Pore Space Light Sheet Flow Depth Pore Flow Laser Endoscope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank the UK Natural Environment Research Council for funding this work (NE/E006884/1). All experiments were undertaken in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, University of Illinois, and we thank Professor Marcelo Garcia for allowing access to this facility, and Professor Kenneth Christensen for providing part of the PIV equipment. Stephan Kallweit of Intelligent Laser Applications (ILA GmbH) supplied the endoscopes and much useful advice on their application, for which we are very grateful.

Supplementary material

Online Resource 1 Sequence of images of instantaneous flow fields showing the evolution of flow driven by a downstream jet leading to formation of a vortical pathway. Supplementary material 1 (AVI 22777 kb)

Online Resource 2 Sequence of images of instantaneous flow fields showing the evolution of flow triggered by a spanwise jet leading to formation of a large vortical structure, whose evolution is driven by fluid motion that is first downstream and then upstream. Supplementary material 2 (AVI 6537 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Blois
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • G. H. Sambrook Smith
    • 1
  • J. L. Best
    • 3
  • R. J. Hardy
    • 4
  • J. R. Lead
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Science and EngineeringUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Geology, Geography, Mechanical Science and Engineering, and Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems LaboratoryUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Geography, Science LaboratoriesDurham UniversityDurhamUK

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