Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 617–631 | Cite as

Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV

  • Chaminda R. Samarage
  • Josie Carberry
  • Kerry Hourigan
  • Andreas FourasEmail author
Research Article


A hybrid of correlation and vector averaging is introduced to capitalise on the advantages of each process. An extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to investigate hybrid averaging and evaluate it against both vector and correlation averaging. The simulations show that hybrid averaging improves the measurement accuracy over both correlation and vector averaging over a wide range of imaging conditions. The simulations are validated by applying hybrid averaging to experimental micro- and macro-flows. In pulsatile conditions, correlation averaging yields an averaged correlation function that is multi-modal, which can result in unpredictable measurements. A Monte Carlo simulation shows the benefits of hybrid averaging over correlation averaging in such conditions. This has been experimentally validated on the unsteady wake behind a shedding circular cylinder at Re = 98.


Vector Average Image Noise Image Pair Correlation Average Seeding Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols



Image signal-to-noise ratio


Total number of image pairs within an image series


Number of image pairs in a correlation average


Particles per sampling window


Number of image pairs in a vector average


Vector validation threshold


Signal-to-noise ratio


Magnitude of the velocity components, u and v


Sampling window size


Volumetric flow rate



Average number of particle image pairs in a sampling window


Apparent number of particle image pairs


Standard deviation of the vector error in pixels


Mean of the vector error in pixels



A. F. acknowledges discussions with Dr. David Lo Jacono. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Mr. Jordan Thurgood in conducting the experiments and Mr. Ivan Ng for the circular cylinder experimental image sequences. Support from the Australian Research Council under Discovery Grants DP0877327 and DP0987643 are gratefully acknowledged. C.R.S. is a recipient of an Australian Postgraduate Award.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaminda R. Samarage
    • 1
  • Josie Carberry
    • 2
  • Kerry Hourigan
    • 4
  • Andreas Fouras
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Biological Engineering, Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Division of Biological EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Division of Biological Engineering, Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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