Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 985–1004 | Cite as

Impulse wave run-over: experimental benchmark study for numerical modelling

Research Article

Abstract

This research intends to provide a detailed data basis for numerical modelling of impulse waves. Three tests are described involving a rectangular wave channel, in which a trapezoidal ‘breakwater’ was inserted to study wave run-over. In addition, a reference test is also described, in which the breakwater was removed. Two-dimensional impulse waves were generated by means of subaerial granular slides accelerated by a pneumatic landslide generator into the water body. Wave propagation and run-over over the artificial breakwater are documented by a set of high-quality photographs. Water surface profiles were recorded using capacitance wave gages upstream and downstream of the breakwater, and velocity vector fields were determined for the run-over zone by means of Particle Image Velocimetry. The measurements are compared with predictive formulae for wave features and wave non-linearity. The present data set involves both simple channel topography and wave features to allow for numerical simulations under basic laboratory conditions.

List of symbols

a

Wave amplitude (L)

\( \overline{a} \)

Test-averaged wave amplitude (L)

aM

Maximum wave amplitude (L)

AM

Relative maximum wave amplitude (–)

b

Slide width (L)

c

Wave celerity (LT−1)

c1

Wave celerity of primary wave (LT−1)

c2

Wave celerity of secondary wave (LT−1)

dg

Grain diameter (L)

F

Slide Froude number (–)

g

Gravitational acceleration (LT−2)

h

Still water depth (L)

H

Wave height (L)

L

Wave length (L)

ms

Slide mass (M)

M

Relative slide mass (–)

P

Impulse product parameter (–)

s

Slide thickness (L)

S

Relative slide thickness (–)

t

Time (T)

T

Wave period (T)

T

Wave type product (–)

U

Ursell number (–)

v

Particle displacement velocity (LT−1)

Vs

Slide impact velocity (LT−1)

\( {\rlap{-} V}_{\text{s}} \)

Bulk slide volume (L3)

w

Breakwater height (L)

x

Streamwise coordinate (L)

xM

Streamwise distance of maximum wave amplitude (L)

XM

Relative distance of maximum wave amplitude (–)

z

Vertical coordinate (L)

α

Slide impact angle (°)

δ

Dynamic bed friction angle (°)

Δt

Temporal offset (T)

φ

Internal friction angle (°)

η

Water surface displacement (L)

ξ

Slide profile (L)

ρg

Grain density (ML−3)

ρs

Bulk slide density (ML−3)

CWG

Capacitance wave gage

LDS

Laser distance sensor

PIV

Particle Image Velocimetry

rms

Root-mean-square

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, Grant 200020_119717/1.

References

  1. Ataie-Ashtiani B, Shobeyri G (2008) Numerical simulation of landslide impulsive waves. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 56:209–232CrossRefMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Dalrymple RA, Rogers BD (2006) Numerical modelling of water waves with the SPH method. Coast Eng 53:141–147. doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Falappi S, Gallati M (2007) SPH simulation of water waves generated by granular landslides. Proceedings of the 32nd Congress of IAHR Venice 933:1–10. IAHR, MadridGoogle Scholar
  4. Fritz HM, Moser P (2003) Pneumatic landslide generator. Int J Fluid Power 4(1):49–57Google Scholar
  5. Fritz HM, Hager WH, Minor H-E (2001) Lituya Bay case: rockslide impact and wave run-up. Sci Tsunami Hazards 19(1):3–22Google Scholar
  6. Fritz HM, Hager WH, Minor H-E (2003) Landslide generated impulse waves. 1. Instantaneous flow fields. Exp Fluids 35:505–519. doi: 10.1007/s00348-003-0659-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grilli ST, Losada MA, Martin F (1994) Characteristics of solitary wave breaking induced by breakwaters. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 120(1):74–92. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1994)120:1(74) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heller V (2007) Landslide generated impulse waves—prediction of near field characteristics. Ph.D. Thesis 17531, ETH Zurich, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  9. Heller V, Hager WH (2010a) Impulse product parameter in landslide generated impulse waves. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng (accepted)Google Scholar
  10. Heller V, Hager WH (2010b) Wave types in landslide generated impulse waves. Ocean Eng (submitted)Google Scholar
  11. Heller V, Hager WH, Minor H-E (2008) Scale effects in subaerial landslide generated impulse waves. Exp Fluids 44:691–703. doi: 10.1007/s00348-007-0427-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang C-J, Dong C-M (2001) On the interaction of a solitary wave and a submerged dike. Coast Eng 43(3–4):265–286. doi: 10.1016/S0378-3839(01)00017-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kamphuis JW, Bowering RJ (1972) Impulse waves generated by landslides. In: Proceedings of 12th Coastal Engineering Conference, Washington DC, vol 1. ASCE, New York, pp 575–588Google Scholar
  14. Le Méhauté B (1976) An introduction to hydrodynamics and water waves. Springer, New YorkMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu PL-F, Synolakis CE, Yeh HH (1991) Report on the international workshop on long-wave run-up. J Fluid Mech 229:675–688CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu PL-F, Yeh H, Synolakis C (2008) Advanced numerical models for simulating tsunami waves and runup. Advances in coastal and ocean engineering, 10. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mader CL, Gittings ML (2002) Modeling the 1958 Lituya Bay mega-tsunami, II. Sci Tsunami Hazards 20(5):11–43Google Scholar
  18. Miles JW (1980) Solitary waves. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 12:11–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Montes S (1998) Hydraulics of open channel flow. ASCE Press, Reston VAGoogle Scholar
  20. Panizzo A, De Girolamo P, Petaccia A (2005) Forecasting impulse waves generated by subaerial landslides. J Geophys Res 110(C12025):1–23. doi: 10.1029/2004JC002778 Google Scholar
  21. Quecedo M, Pastor M, Herreros MI (2004) Numerical modelling of impulse wave generated by fast landslides. Int J Numer Meth Eng 59:1633–1656CrossRefMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Reeve D, Chadwick A, Fleming C (2004) Coastal engineering: processes, theory and design practice. Taylor & Francis, London UKGoogle Scholar
  23. Schnitter G (1964) Die Katastrophe von Vaiont in Oberitalien (in German). Wasser- und Energiewirtschaft 56(2/3):61–69Google Scholar
  24. Schwaiger HF, Higman B (2007) Lagrangian hydrocode simulations of the 1958 Lituya Bay tsunamigenic rockslide. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8(7):Q07006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sorensen RM (1993) Basic wave mechanics for coastal and ocean engineers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Ursell F (1953) The long-wave paradox in the theory of gravity waves. Proc Camb Philos Soc 49:685–694Google Scholar
  27. Weiss R, Wuennemann K (2007) Understanding tsunami by landslides as the next challenge for hazard, risk and mitigation: insight from multi-material hydrocode modeling. In: EOS Transactions AGU, San Francisco, 88(52):S51C-06Google Scholar
  28. Zweifel A, Zuccalà D, Gatti D (2007) Comparison between computed and experimentally generated impulse waves. J Hydraul Eng 133(2):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW)ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.School of Civil Engineering and the EnvironmentUniversity of SouthamptonHighfield, SouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations