Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 121–131 | Cite as

Experiments in a floating water bridge

  • Jakob WoisetschlägerEmail author
  • Karl Gatterer
  • Elmar C. Fuchs
Research Article


In a high-voltage direct-current experiment, a watery connection formed between two beakers filled with deionized water, giving the impression of a ‘floating water bridge’. Having a few millimeters diameter and up to 2.5 cm length, this watery connection reveals a number of interesting phenomena currently discussed in water science. Focusing on optical measurement techniques, the flow through the bridge was visualized and data were recorded such as flow velocity and directions, heat production, density fluctuations, pH values, drag force and mass transfer. To provide a better understanding of the basic phenomena involved the discussion references related literature.


Tracer Particle Laser Doppler Anemometer Water Bridge Bridge Length Beaker Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, as well as by the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, both at Graz University of Technology, for sharing the NANOpure system and the Photron high-speed camera, respectively, and the support by H. Eisenkölbl (Graz University of Technology). With great pleasure, the authors wish to thank Professors Cees Buisman (Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology), Emilio Del Giudice (Universitá di Milano), Franz Heitmeir (Graz University of Technology), Jan C.M. Marijnissen (Delft University of Technology) and Gerald H. Pollack (University of Washington) for the ongoing discussion on the water bridge phenomenon (in alphabetic order).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakob Woisetschläger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karl Gatterer
    • 2
  • Elmar C. Fuchs
    • 3
  1. 1.Experimental Turbomachinery Research and Optical Measurement Group, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine DynamicsGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Physical and Theoretical ChemistryGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water TechnologyLeeuwardenThe Netherlands

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