Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 119–134 | Cite as

Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

  • A. I. Ramírez
  • S. Som
  • Suresh K. Aggarwal
  • A. L. Kastengren
  • E. M. El-Hannouny
  • D. E. Longman
  • C. F. Powell
Research Article


A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.


Cone Angle Diesel Spray Spray Penetration Pressure Case Rail Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Vehicle Technology under the management of Gurpreet Singh. The experiments were performed at the 1-BM beam-line of the APS. Use of the APS is supported by the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The authors would like to thank Rick Zadoks and Robert McDavid from Caterpillar Inc. and Anthony Dennis from Test Development Innovators L.L.C. for their help.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Ramírez
    • 1
  • S. Som
    • 1
  • Suresh K. Aggarwal
    • 1
  • A. L. Kastengren
    • 2
  • E. M. El-Hannouny
    • 2
  • D. E. Longman
    • 2
  • C. F. Powell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Energy Systems DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

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