Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 119–134 | Cite as

Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

  • A. I. Ramírez
  • S. Som
  • Suresh K. Aggarwal
  • A. L. Kastengren
  • E. M. El-Hannouny
  • D. E. Longman
  • C. F. Powell
Research Article

Abstract

A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.

Keywords

Cone Angle Diesel Spray Spray Penetration Pressure Case Rail Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Vehicle Technology under the management of Gurpreet Singh. The experiments were performed at the 1-BM beam-line of the APS. Use of the APS is supported by the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The authors would like to thank Rick Zadoks and Robert McDavid from Caterpillar Inc. and Anthony Dennis from Test Development Innovators L.L.C. for their help.

References

  1. Aamir MA, Awais MM, Watkins AP, Lockwood FC (1999) CFD and neural network modelling of dense propane spray. In: Proceedings of the 15th ILASS-Europe annual conferenceGoogle Scholar
  2. Arcoumanis C, Gavaises M (1998) Linking nozzle flow with spray characteristics in a diesel fuel injection system. Atomization Sprays 8(3):307–347Google Scholar
  3. Arcoumanis C, Cossali E, Paal G, Whitelaw JH (1990) Transient characteristics of multi-hole diesel sprays. SAE Paper 900480Google Scholar
  4. Bosch W (1966) The fuel rate indicator: a new measuring instrument for display of the characteristics of individual injection. SAE Paper 660749Google Scholar
  5. Chaves H, Knapp M, Kubitzek A, Obermeier F, Schneider T (1995) Experimental study of cavitation in the nozzle of diesel injectors using transparent nozzles. SAE Paper 950290Google Scholar
  6. Cheong SK, Liu J, Shu D, Wang J, Powell CF (2004) Effects of ambient pressure on dynamics of near-nozzle diesel sprays studied by ultrafast X-radiography. SAE Paper 2004-01-2026Google Scholar
  7. Ciatti SA, Powell CF, Cheong SK, Liu J, Tanner FX (2004) Comparison of X-ray based fuel spray measurements with computer simulation using the CAB model. CIMAC congress. Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
  8. Gavaises M, Arcoumanis C, Roth H, Choi YS, Theodorakakos A (2002) Nozzle flow and spray development from VCO diesel injector nozzles. In: Thiesel conference on thermo and fluid dynamic processes in diesel engines. Valencia, SpainGoogle Scholar
  9. Gavaises M, Tonini S, Arcoumanis C (2006) Prediction of liquid and vapor penetration of high pressure diesel sprays. SAE Paper 2006-01-0242Google Scholar
  10. Giannadakis E, Gavaises M, Arcoumanis C (2008) Modelling of cavitation in diesel injector nozzles. J Fluid Mech 616:153–193zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glassey SF, Stockner AR, Flinn MA (1993) Development of the HEUI fuel injection system—integration of design, simulation, test, and manufacturing. SAE Paper 930271Google Scholar
  12. Han J-S, Lu P-H, Xie X-B, Lai M-C, Nenein N (2002) Investigation of diesel spray primary break-up and development for different nozzle geometries. SAE Paper 2002-01-2775Google Scholar
  13. Hiroyasu H, Arai M (1990) Structures of fuel sprays in diesel engines. Trans SAE 99(3):1050–1061Google Scholar
  14. Kastengren AL, Powell CF, Cheong SK, Wang Y, Im KS, Liu Xin, Wang J (2007a) Determination of diesel spray axial velocity using X-ray radiography. SAE Paper 2007-01-0666Google Scholar
  15. Kastengren AL, Powell CF, Wang Y-J, Wang J (2007b) Study of diesel jet variability using single-shot X-ray radiography. In: Proceedings of the ASME internal combustion engine division, Charleston, USA, October 2007Google Scholar
  16. Kastengren AL, Powell CF, Wang Y, Im KS, Wang J (2008) X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density. In: Proceedings of the 21st ILASS annual conference, Orlando, FL, May 2008Google Scholar
  17. Larmi M, Rantanen P, Tiainen J, Kiijarvi J, Tanner FX, Zarling KS (2002) Simulation of non-evaporating diesel spray and verification with experimental data. SAE Paper 2002-01-0946Google Scholar
  18. Leick P, Reidel T, Bittlinger G, Powell CF, Kastengren AL, Wang J, Wang J (2007) X-ray measurements of the mass distribution in the dense primary break-up region of the spray from a standard multi-hole common-rail diesel injection system. In: Proceedings of the 21st ILASS-Europe meetingGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu AB, Mather DK, Reitz RD (1993) Effects of drop drag and breakup on fuel sprays. SAE Paper 930072Google Scholar
  20. Malavé A, Farrell P, Powell CF, Cheong S-K, Wang J (2006) Near-nozzle diesel spray imaging using X-rays. In: Proceedings of 19th annual conference on liquid atomization and spray systemsGoogle Scholar
  21. Montgomery DR, Chan M, Chang CT, Farrell PV, Reitz RD (1996) Effect of injector nozzle hole size and number spray characteristics and the performance of a heavy duty D.I. diesel engine. SAE Paper 962002Google Scholar
  22. Mulemane A, Han J-S, Lu P-H, Yoon S-J, Lai M-C (2004) Modeling dynamic behavior of diesel fuel injection systems. SAE Paper 2004-01-0536Google Scholar
  23. Naber JD, Siebers DL (1996) Effects of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of diesel sprays. SAE Paper 960034Google Scholar
  24. Payri R, Salvador FJ, Gimeno J, Morena J (2008a) Macroscopic behavior of diesel sprays in the near-nozzle field. SAE Paper 2008-01-0929Google Scholar
  25. Payri R, Salvador FJ, Gimeno J, Bracho G (2008b) A new methodology for correcting the signal cumulative phenomenon on injection rate measurements. Experimental techniques, January/February 2008Google Scholar
  26. Pierpont DA, Reitz RD (1995) Effects of injection pressure and nozzle geometry on D.I. diesel emissions and performance. SAE Paper 950604Google Scholar
  27. Powell CF, Yue Y, Poola R, Wang J, Lai MC, Schaller J (2001) X-ray measurements of high pressure diesel sprays. SAE Paper 2001-01-0531Google Scholar
  28. Powell CF, Yue Y, Cheong S-K, Narayanan S, Cuenca R, Ciatti SA, Shu D, Wang J (2003) Effects of ambient pressure on fuel sprays as measured using X-ray absorption. In: Proceedings of the 16th ILASS annual conference, Monterey, CA, May 2003Google Scholar
  29. Ranz WE, Marshall WR (1952) Evaporation of drops. Chem Eng Prog 48(3):141–145Google Scholar
  30. Reitz RD, Diwakar D (1987) Structure of high-pressure fuel sprays. SAE Paper 870598Google Scholar
  31. Roisman IV, Araneo L, Tropea C (2007) Effect of ambient pressure on penetration of a diesel spray. Int J Multiphase Flow 33:904–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt DP, Rutland CJ (2000) A new droplet collision algorithm. J Comput Phys 164:62–80zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siebers DL (1998) Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays. SAE Paper 980809Google Scholar
  34. Som S, Ramírez AI, Aggarwal SK, El-Hannouny EM, Longman DE (2009) Investigating the nozzle flow and cavitation characteristics in a production diesel injector. J Eng Gas Turbine Power (submitted)Google Scholar
  35. Soteriou C, Andrews R, Smith M (1995) Direct injection diesel sprays and the effect of cavitation and hydraulic flip on atomisation. SAE Paper 950080Google Scholar
  36. Stockner AR, Flinn MS, Camplin FA (1993) HEUI—a new direction for diesel engine fuel systems. SAE Paper 930270Google Scholar
  37. Tanner FX, Feigl KA, Ciatti SA, Powell CF, Cheong SK, Liu J, Wang J (2004) Analysis of X-ray-based computer simulations of diesel fuel sprays. In: Proceedings of the 17th ILASS-Europe annual conference, Arlington, USA, May 2004Google Scholar
  38. Tanner FX, Feigl KA, Ciatti SA, Powell CF, Cheong SK, Liu J, Wang J (2006) The structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region. Atomization Sprays 16:579–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang T-C, Han J-S, Xie X-B, Lai M-C, Henein NA (2003) Trans ASMEGoogle Scholar
  40. Warrick CB, Su TF, Farrell PV (1996) Temperature effects on fuel sprays from a multi-hole nozzle injector. SAE Paper 962005Google Scholar
  41. Yudanov SV (1995) Hydraulically activated electronically controlled unit injector for diesel engines. SAE Paper 952057Google Scholar
  42. Yue Y, Powell CF, Poola R, Wang J, Schaller J (2001) Quantitative measurements of diesel fuel spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region using X-ray absorption. Atomization Sprays 11:471–490Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Ramírez
    • 1
  • S. Som
    • 1
  • Suresh K. Aggarwal
    • 1
  • A. L. Kastengren
    • 2
  • E. M. El-Hannouny
    • 2
  • D. E. Longman
    • 2
  • C. F. Powell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Energy Systems DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Personalised recommendations