Torus generated by Escherichia coli
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The bioluminescence images of unstirred cultures show that lux reporter E. coli (0.10 mg biomass per ml of the broth medium) in 6.4–10 mm diameter circular containers induce center-fluid-rising toroidal convection of ≤1 mm/min. The bioconvective torus is stable in a Teflon vessel and is deformed by 3.2–4.4 mm wavelength azimuthal waves in polystyrene or glass vessels.
This work was supported by EC 6FP STREP project “FACEiT”, contract No. 018391 GOCE and the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation project “BIOSA” N-19/2008.