Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 371–422 | Cite as

On the experimental investigation on primary atomization of liquid streams

  • Christophe Dumouchel
Review Article


The production of a liquid spray can be summarized as the succession of the following three steps; the liquid flow ejection, the primary breakup mechanism and the secondary breakup mechanism. The intermediate step—the primary breakup mechanism—covers the early liquid flow deformation down to the production of the first isolated liquid fragments. This step is very important and requires to be fully understood since it constitutes the link between the flow issuing from the atomizer and the final spray. This paper reviews the experimental investigations dedicated to this early atomization step. Several situations are considered: cylindrical liquid jets, flat liquid sheets, air-assisted cylindrical liquid jets and air-assisted flat liquid sheets. Each fluid stream adopts several atomization regimes according to the operating conditions. These regimes as well as the significant parameters they depend on are listed. The main instability mechanisms, which control primary breakup processes, are rather well described. This review points out the internal geometrical nozzle characteristics and internal flow details that influence the atomization mechanisms. The contributions of these characteristics, which require further investigations to be fully identified and quantified, are believed to be the main reason of experimental discrepancies and explain a lack of universal primary breakup regime categorizations.


Nozzle Exit Weber Number Spray Angle Liquid Sheet Shadowgraph Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


liquid jet radius (mm)


spray angle parameter


fluid flow exit section area (mm2)


nozzle diameter (mm)


drop diameter (μm)


Sauter mean diameter (μm)


arithmetic mean diameter of the volume-based drop-size distribution (μm)


undulation frequency (Hz)


gravitational acceleration (m/s2)


wave number (m−1)


liquid sheet thickness parameter (cm2)


nozzle length (mm)


breakup length (mm)


liquid jet core length (mm)


boundary-layer length (mm)


liquid jet potential core length (mm)


liquid presence probability


mass flux ratio


momentum flux ratio


Ohnesorge number


gas ambient pressure (MPa)


radial coordinate (mm)


radial position of a flat sheet breakup (mm)


Reynolds number


Taylor number


time (s)


breakup time (s)

tL, tG

liquid and gas flow thickness (mm)


average velocity (m/s)


critical liquid jet velocity (m/s)


minimum liquid jet velocity (m/s)


Weber number


critical gaseous Weber number


relative gaseous Weber number


axial distance from nozzle (mm)

Greek symbols


air vorticity thickness (mm)


injection pressure (MPa)


fluid density (kg/m3)


wavelength (cm)


radial spatial integral length of turbulence (μm)


fluid dynamic viscosity (kg/ms)


surface tension (N/m)


interface displacement (mm)


initial interface displacement (μm)


pulsation (s−1)



related to the liquid flow


related to the gas flow






  1. Amagai K, Arai M (1997) Frequency analysis of disintegrating liquid column. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’97, Seoul, Korea, 18–22 August 1997, pp 361–368Google Scholar
  2. Arai M, Amagai K (1999) Surface wave transition before breakup on a laminar liquid jet. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 20:507–512Google Scholar
  3. Arai T, Hashimoto H (1985) Disintegration of a thin liquid sheet in a cocurrent gas stream. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’85, London, UK, 8–10 July 1985, paper VIB/1Google Scholar
  4. Arai M, Shimizu M, Hiroyasu H (1985) Break-up length and spray angle of high speed jet. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’85, London, UK, 8–10 July 1985, paper IB/4Google Scholar
  5. Arai M, Shimizu M, Hiroyasu H (1988) Break-up length and spray formation mechanism of high speed liquid jet. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’88, Sendai, Japan, 22–24 August 1988, paper A/4, pp 177–184Google Scholar
  6. Arcoumanis C, Gavaises M, Flora H, Roth H (2001) Visualisation of cavitation in diesel engine injectors. Mec Ind 2:375–381Google Scholar
  7. Bachalo WD (2000) Spray diagnostics for the twenty-first century. At Sprays 10:439–474Google Scholar
  8. Badock C, Wirth R, Tropea C (1999a) The influence of hydro grinding on cavitation inside a diesel injection nozzle and primary break-up under unsteady pressure conditions. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe’99, Toulouse, France, 5–7 July 1999Google Scholar
  9. Badock C, Wirth R, Fath A, Leipertz A (1999b) Investigation of cavitation in real size diesel injection nozzles. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 20:518–544Google Scholar
  10. Bayvel L, Orzechowski Z (1993) Liquid atomization. Taylor and Francis, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaisot JB, Adeline S (2000a) Determination of local properties of the instabilities on a capillary jet. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’2000, Pasadena, CA, USA, 16–20 July 2000Google Scholar
  12. Blaisot JB, Adeline S (2000b) Determination of the growth rate of instability of low velocity free falling jets. Exp Fluids 29:247–256Google Scholar
  13. Blaisot JB, Adeline S (2003) Instabilities on a free falling jet under an internal flow breakup mode regime. Int J Multiph Flow 29:629–653zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaisot JB, Yon J (2005) Droplet size and morphology characterization for dense sprays by image processing: application to diesel spray. Exp Fluids 39:977–994Google Scholar
  15. Briggs TE, Malave A, Farrell PV (2006) Dual-wavelength absorption imaging of diesel sprays. In: Proceedings of ICLASS 2006, Kyoto, Japan, 27 August–1 September 2006, paper 135Google Scholar
  16. Carvalho IS, Heitor MV (1998) Liquid film break-up in a model of a prefilming airblast nozzle. Exp Fluids 24:408–415Google Scholar
  17. Carvalho IS, Heitor MV, Santos D (2002) Liquid film disintegration regimes and proposed correlations. Int J Multiph Flow 28:773–789zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Chigier N (2005) The future of atomization and sprays. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe 2005, Orléans, France, 5–7 September 2005Google Scholar
  19. Chigier N, Dumouchel C (1996) Atomization of liquid sheets. In: Kuo KK (ed) Recent advances in spray combustion: spray atomization and drop burning phenomena. Progress in astronautics and aeronautics, vol I, 166, chap 10. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp 241–259Google Scholar
  20. Chigier N, Reitz RD (1996) Regimes of jet breakup and breakup mechanisms (physical aspects). In: Kuo KK (ed) Recent advances in spray combustion: spray atomization and drop burning phenomena. Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol I, chap 4, 166. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp 109–135Google Scholar
  21. Clanet C, Villermaux E (2002) Life of a smooth liquid sheet. JFM 462:307–340zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. Clark CJ, Dombrowski N (1974) An experimental study of the flow of thin liquid sheets in hot atmospheres. JFM 64:167–175Google Scholar
  23. Crapper GD, Dombrowski N, Jepson WP, Pyott GAD (1973) A note of the growth of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves on thin liquid sheets. JFM 57:671–672Google Scholar
  24. Dahm WJA, Frieler CE, Tryggvason G (1992) Vortex structure and dynamics in the near field of a coaxial jet. JFM 241:371–402Google Scholar
  25. Dan T, Yamamoto T, Senda J, Fujimoto H (1997) Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting diesel fuel sprays. SAE technical paper 970355Google Scholar
  26. Delacourt E, Desmet B, Besson B (2005) Characterisation of very high pressure diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques. Fuel 84:859–867Google Scholar
  27. Dombrowski N, Foumeny EA (1998) On the stability of liquid sheets in hot atmospheres. At Sprays 8:235–240Google Scholar
  28. Dombrowski N, Hasson D, Ward DE (1960) Some aspects of liquid flow through fan spray nozzles. Chem Eng Sci 12:35–50Google Scholar
  29. Dumont N, Simonin O, Habchi C (2000) Cavitating flow in diesel injectors and atomization: a bibliographical review. In: Proceedings of ICLASS 2000, Pasadena, CA, USA, 16–20 July 2000Google Scholar
  30. Dumouchel C (2001) Measurements of breakup length of cylindrical liquid jets. Application to low-pressure car injector. At Sprays 11:201–226Google Scholar
  31. Dumouchel C (2005) Experimental analysis of a liquid atomization process at low Weber number. In: Proceedings of international symposium on heat and mass transfer in spray systems, Antalya, Turkey, 5–10 June 2005Google Scholar
  32. Dumouchel C, Cousin J, Triballier K (2005a) On the role of the liquid flow characteristics on low-Weber-number atomization processes. Exp Fluids 38:637–647Google Scholar
  33. Dumouchel C, Cousin J, Triballier K (2005b) Experimental analysis of liquid–gas interface at low Weber number: interface length and fractal dimension. Exp Fluids 39:651–666Google Scholar
  34. Dunand A, Carreau JL, Roger F (2005) Liquid jet breakup and atomization by annular swirling gas jet. At Sprays 15:223–247Google Scholar
  35. Eroglu H, Chigier N (1991a) Liquid jet instability in coaxial air flow. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’91, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 15–18 July 1991, paper 78, pp 703–710Google Scholar
  36. Eroglu H, Chigier N (1991b) Wave characteristics of liquid jets from airblast coaxial atomizers. At Sprays 1:349–366Google Scholar
  37. Eroglu H, Chigier N (1991c) Liquid sheet instability in a coflowing airstream. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’91, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 15–18 July 1991, paper 75, pp 679–686Google Scholar
  38. Eroglu H, Chigier N, Farago Z (1991) Caoaxial atomizer liquid intact lengths. Phys Fluids 3:303–308Google Scholar
  39. Faeth GM, Hsiang LP, Wu PK (1995) Structure and breakup properties of sprays. Int J Multiph Flow 21:99–127zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. Farago Z, Chigier N (1990) Parametric experiments on coaxial airblast jet atomization. In: ASME 35th international gas turbine conference, Brussels, Belgium, June 1990, paper 90-GT-81Google Scholar
  41. Farago Z, Chigier N (1992) Morphological classification of disintegration of round liquid jets in a coaxial air stream. At Sprays 2:137–153Google Scholar
  42. Fenn RW, Middleman S (1969) Newtonian jet stability: the role of air resistance. AIChE J 15:379–383Google Scholar
  43. Fraser RP, Eisenklam P, Dombrowski N, Hasson D (1962) Drop formation from rapidly moving liquid sheets. AIChE J 8:672–680Google Scholar
  44. Frohn A, Roth N (2000) Dynamics of droplets. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  45. Funada T, Joseph DD, Yamashita S (2004) Stability of a liquid jet into incompressible gases and liquids. Int J Multiph Flow 30:1279–1310zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Godelle J (1999) Caractérisation de systèmes dynamiques complexes: instabilités de jet. Ph.D. thesis, University of Paris VII, FranceGoogle Scholar
  47. Godelle J, Letellier C, Dumouchel C (2000a) Velocity profile effect and phase intermittency in low velocity cylindrical liquid jets. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’2000, Pasadena, CA, USA, 16–20 July 2000Google Scholar
  48. Godelle J, Letellier C, Dumouchel C (2000b) Phase intermittency versus stochastic dynamics in low velocity cylindrical liquid jets. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe 2000, Darmstadt, Germany, 11–13 September 2000Google Scholar
  49. Godelle J, Letellier C (2000) Symbolic statistical analysis for free liquid jets. Phys Rev E 62:7973–7981Google Scholar
  50. Grant RP, Middleman S (1966) Newtonian jet stability. AIChE J 12:669–678Google Scholar
  51. Grout S, Dumouchel C, Cousin J, Nugglish H (2007) Fractal analysis of atomizing liquid flows. Int J Multiph Flow 33:1023–1044Google Scholar
  52. Hagerty WW, Shea JF (1955) A study of the stability of plane fluid sheets. J Appl Mech 22:509–514Google Scholar
  53. Hardalupas Y, Tsai RF, Whitelaw JH (1998) Primary breakup of coaxial airblast atomizers. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe’98, Manchester, UK, 6–8 July 1998, pp 42–47Google Scholar
  54. Hiroyasu H (2000) Spray breakup mechanism from the hole-type nozzle and its applications. At Sprays 10:511–527Google Scholar
  55. Hiroyasu H, Arai M, Shimizu M (1991) Break-up length of a liquid jet and internal flow in a nozzle. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’91, Gaithersburgh, MD, USA, 15–18 July 1991, paper 26, pp 275–282Google Scholar
  56. Huang JCP (1970) The break-up of axisymmetric liquid sheets. JFM 43:305–319Google Scholar
  57. Ibrahim EA, Marshall SO (2000) Instability of a liquid jet of parabolic velocity profile. Chem Eng J 76:17–21Google Scholar
  58. Karasawa T, Tanaka M, Abe K, Shiga S, Kurabayashi T (1992) Effect of nozzle configuration on the atomization of a steady spray. At Sprays 2:411–426Google Scholar
  59. Keller JB, Rubinow SI, Tu YO (1973) Spatial instability of a jet. Phys Fluids 16:2052–2055Google Scholar
  60. Kitamura Y, Takahashi T (1978) Influence of the nozzle length on breakup of a liquid jet. In: Proceedings of ICLASS 78, paper 1.1, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  61. Kim JK, Nishida K, Hiroyasu H (1997) Characteristics of the internal flow in a diesel injection nozzle. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’97, Seoul, Korea, 18–22 August 1997, pp 175–182Google Scholar
  62. Lasheras JC, Hopfinger EJ (2000) Liquid jet instability and atomization in a coaxial gas stream. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 32:275–308Google Scholar
  63. Lasheras JC, Villermaux E, Hopfinger EJ (1998) Break-up and atomization of a round water jet by a high-speed annular air jet. JFM 357:351–379Google Scholar
  64. Lefebvre AH (1989) Atomization and sprays. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Lefebvre AH (1992) Energy considerations in twin-fluid atomization. ASME J Eng Gas Turbine Power 114:207–212Google Scholar
  66. Leib SJ, Goldstein ME (1986a) Convective and absolute instability of a viscous liquid jet. Phys Fluids 29:952–954Google Scholar
  67. Leib SJ, Goldstein ME (1986b) The generation of capillary instability on a liquid jet. JFM 168:479–500zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  68. Leroux B, Delabroy O, Lacas F (2007) Experimental study of coaxial atomizers scaling. Part I: Dense core zone. At Sprays 17:381–407Google Scholar
  69. Leroux S (1996) Stabilité d’un jet liquide cylindrique. Influence de fortes pressions ambiantes. Ph.D. thesis, Université of Rouen, FranceGoogle Scholar
  70. Leroux S, Dumouchel C, Ledoux M (1996) The stability curve of Newtonian liquid jets. At Sprays 6:623–647Google Scholar
  71. Leroux S, Dumouchel C, Ledoux M (1997) The breakup length of laminar cylindrical liquid jets. Modification of Weber’s theory. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’97, Seoul, Korea, 18–22 August 1997, pp 353–360Google Scholar
  72. Li H, Collicott SH (2006) Visualisation of cavitation in high-pressure diesel fuel injector orifices. At Sprays 16:875–886Google Scholar
  73. Lin SP (2003) Breakup of liquid sheets and jets. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. Lin SP, Creighton B (1990) Energy budget in atomization. J Aero Sci Technol 12:630–636Google Scholar
  75. Lin SP, Lian ZW (1989) Absolute instability in a gas. Phys Fluids A1:490–493Google Scholar
  76. Lin SP, Lian ZW (1990) Mechanics of the breakup of liquid jets. AIAA J 28:120–126Google Scholar
  77. Lin SP, Reitz RD (1998) Drop and spray formation from a liquid jet. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 30:85–105MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  78. Lozano A, Barreras F (2001) Experimental study of the gas flow in an air-blasted liquid sheet. Exp Fluids 31:367–376Google Scholar
  79. Lozano A, Call CJ, Dopazo C, Gacia-Olivares A (1996) Experimental and numerical study of the atomization of a planar liquid sheet. At Sprays 6:77–94Google Scholar
  80. Lozano A, Gacia-Olivares A, Dopazo C (1998) The instability growth leading to a liquid sheet breakup. Phys Fluids 10:2188–2197zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  81. Lozano A, Barreras F, Hauke G, Dopazo C (2001) Longitudinal instabilities in an air-blasted liquid sheet. JFM 437:143–173zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  82. Lozano A, Barreras F, Siegler C, Löw D (2005) The effects of sheet thickness on the oscillation of an air-blasted liquid sheet. Exp Fluids 39:127–139Google Scholar
  83. Malot H, Blaisot JB, Dumouchel C (2000) Droplet size distribution of sprays produced by Newtonian liquid jets. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’2000, Pasadena, CA, USA, 16–20 July 2000Google Scholar
  84. Malot H, Dumouchel C (2001) Experimental investigation of the drop size distribution of sprays produced by a low-velocity Newtonian cylindrical liquid jet. At Sprays 11:227–254Google Scholar
  85. Mansour A, Chigier N (1990) Disintegration of liquid sheets. Phys Fluids 2:706–719Google Scholar
  86. Mansour A, Chigier N (1991) Dynamic behavior of liquid sheets. Phys Fluids 3:2971–2980Google Scholar
  87. Mansour A, Chigier N (1994) Effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. At Sprays 4:583–604Google Scholar
  88. Marmottant PH, Villermaux E (2004) On spray formation. JFM 498:73–111zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  89. Mayer WOH, Branam R (2004) Atomization characteristics on the surface of a round liquid jet. Exp Fluids 36:528–539Google Scholar
  90. Mc Carthy MJ, Molloy NA (1974) Review of stability of liquid jets and the influence of nozzle design. Chem Eng J 7:1–20Google Scholar
  91. Miesse CC (1955) Correlation of experimental data on the disintegration of liquid jets. Ind Eng Chem 47:1690–1695Google Scholar
  92. Nakagawa H, Kamata S, Hori T, Okumura N, Senda J, Fujimoto HG (2006) Novel photographic imaging method for diesel spray structure with new lens and large sized film system. In: Proceedings of ICLASS 2006, Kyoto, Japan, 27 August–1 September 2006, paper 119Google Scholar
  93. Ohrn TR, Senser DW, Lefebvre AH (1991a) Geometrical effects on discharge coefficients for plain-orifice atomizers. At Sprays 1:137–153Google Scholar
  94. Ohrn TR, Senser DW, Lefebvre AH (1991b) Geometrical effects on spray angle for plain-orifice atomizers. At Sprays 1:253–268Google Scholar
  95. Paciaroni M, Linne M, Hall T, Delplanque JP, Praker T (2004) Ballistic imaging for the liquid core of an atomizing spray. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe 2004, Nottingham, UK, 6–8 September 2004, pp 94–99Google Scholar
  96. Paciaroni M, Linne M, Hall T, Delplanque JP, Praker T (2006) Single-shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging of the liquid core in an atomizing spray. At Sprays 16:51–69Google Scholar
  97. Park J, Huh KY, Li X, Renksizbulut M (2004) Experimental investigation on cellular breakup of a planar liquid sheet from an air-blast nozzle. Phys Fluids 16:625–632Google Scholar
  98. Parker TE, Raimaldi LR, Rawlins WT (1998) A comparative study of room-temperature and combustion fuel sprays near the injector tip using infrared laser diagnostics. At Sprays 8:565–600Google Scholar
  99. Payri F, Bermudez V, Payri R, Salvador FJ (2004) The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles. Fuel 83:419–431Google Scholar
  100. Phinney RE (1972) Stability of a laminar viscous jet. The influence of the initial disturbance level. AIChE J 18:432–434Google Scholar
  101. Porcheron E, Carreau JL, Prevost L, Le Visage D, Roger F (2002) Effect of injection gas density on coaxial liquid jet atomization. At Sprays 12:209–227Google Scholar
  102. Rayleigh L (1878) On the instability of jets. Proc Lond Math Soc 10:4–13Google Scholar
  103. Ranz WE (1956) On sprays and spraying. Dep. Eng. Res., Penn State Univ. Bull 65Google Scholar
  104. Rehab H, Villermaux E, Hopfinger EJ (1997) Flow regimes of large-velocity-ratio coaxial jets. JFM 345:357–381MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  105. Reitz R (1978) Atomization and other breakup regimes of a liquid Jet. Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  106. Reitz R, Bracco FV (1982) Mechanism of atomization of a liquid jet. Phys Fluids 25:1730–1742zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  107. Rizk NK, Lefebvre AH (1980) Influence of liquid film thickness on airblast atomization. Trans ASME J Eng Power 102:706–710Google Scholar
  108. Ruiz F (2002) Small waves on the jet “intact length”: results using a new experimental technique. At Sprays 12:709–720Google Scholar
  109. Sallam KA, Dai Z, Faeth GM (1999) Drop formation at the surface of plane turbulent liquid jets in still gases. Int J Multiph Flow 25:1161–1180zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  110. Sallam KA, Dai Z, Faeth GM (2002) Liquid breakup at the surface of turbulent round liquid jets in still gases. Int J Multiph Flow 28:427–449zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  111. Savart F (1833) Mémoire sur la constitution des veines liquides lancées par des orifices circulaires en mince paroi. Ann Chem 53:337–386Google Scholar
  112. Shavit U (2001) Gas–liquid interaction in the liquid breakup region of two-fluid atomization. Exp Fluids 31:550–557Google Scholar
  113. Shavit U, Chigier N (1995) Fractal dimensions of liquid jet interface under breakup. At Sprays 5:525–543Google Scholar
  114. Sindayihebura D, Dumouchel C (2001) Pressure atomizer: hole break-up of the sheet. J Vis 4:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sirignano WA, Mehring C (2000) Review of theory of distortion and disintegration of liquid streams. Prog Energy Combust Sci 26:609–655Google Scholar
  116. Smallwood GJ, Gülder OL (2000) Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays. At Sprays 10:355–386Google Scholar
  117. Sowa WA (1992) Interpreting mean drop diameters using distribution moments. At Sprays 2:1–15Google Scholar
  118. Stapper BE, Samuelsen GS (1990) An experimental study of the breakup of a two-dimensional liquid sheet in the presence of co-flow air shear. AIAA Paper 90-22730Google Scholar
  119. Stapper BE, Sowa WA, Samuelsen GS (1992) An experimental study of the effects of liquid properties on the breakup of two-dimensional liquid sheet. Trans ASME Eng Gas Turbine Power 114:39–45Google Scholar
  120. Stepowski D, Werquin O (2004) Measurement of the liquid volume fraction and its statistical distribution in the near development field of a spray. At Sprays 14:243–264Google Scholar
  121. Sterling AM, Sleicher CA (1975) The instability of capillary jets. JFM 68:477–495zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  122. Squire HB (1953) Investigation on the instability of a moving liquid film. Br J Appl Phys 4:167–169Google Scholar
  123. Tamaki N, Shimizu M, Hiroyasu H (2001) Enhancement of the atomization of a liquid jet by cavitation in a nozzle hole. At Sprays 11:125–137Google Scholar
  124. Tamaki N, Shimizu M, Nishida K, Hiroyasu H (1998) Effects of cavitation and internal flow on atomization of a liquid jet. At Sprays 8:179–197Google Scholar
  125. Taylor GI (1940) Generation of ripples by wind blowing over a viscous fluid. Collected work of G.I. Taylor, vol 3Google Scholar
  126. Taylor GI (1959a) The dynamics of thin sheets of fluids. I—Water bells. Proc R Soc Lond A 253:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Taylor GI (1959b) The dynamics of thin sheets of fluids. II—Waves in fluid sheets. Proc R Soc Lond A 253:296–312Google Scholar
  128. Taylor GI (1959c) The dynamics of thin sheets of fluids. III—Disintegration of fluid sheets. Proc R Soc Lond A 253:313–321Google Scholar
  129. Tropea C, Yarin AL, Foss JF (2007) Springer handbook of experimental fluid mechanics. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  130. Vich G, Dumouchel C, Ledoux M (1996) Mechanisms of disintegration of flat liquid sheets. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe’96, Lund, Sweden, 19–21 June 1996, pp 121–126Google Scholar
  131. Villermaux E, Clanet C (2002) Life of a flapping liquid sheet. JFM 462:341–363zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  132. Weber C (1931) Zum Zerfall eines Flussigkeitstrahles. Z Angew Math Mech 11:136–159zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  133. Woodward RD, Burch RL, Kuo KK, Cheung FB (1994) Correlation of intact-liquid core length for coaxial injectors. In: Proceedings of ICLASS’94, Rouen, France, 18–22 July 1994, paper VI-11, pp 105–112Google Scholar
  134. Wu PK, Faeth GM (1993) Aerodynamic effects on primary breakup of turbulent liquids. At Sprays 3:265–289Google Scholar
  135. Wu PK, Faeth GM (1995) Onset and end of drop formation along the surface of turbulent liquid jets in still gases. Phys Fluids 7:2915–2917Google Scholar
  136. Wu PK, Miranda RF, Faeth GM (1995) Effects of initial flow conditions on primary breakup of nonturbulent and turbulent round liquid jets. At Sprays 5:175–196Google Scholar
  137. Wu PK, Tseng LK, Faeth GM (1992) Primary breakup in gas/liquid mixing layers for turbulent liquids. At Sprays 2:295–317Google Scholar
  138. Yon J, Blaisot JB, Ledoux M (2003) Unusual laser-sheet tomography coupled with backlight imaging configurations to study the diesel jet structure at the nozzle outlet for high injection pressures. J Flow Vis Image Process 9:1–20Google Scholar
  139. Yon J, Lalizel G, Blaisot JB (2004) A statistical morphological determination of the growth rate of the interfacial disturbance of an excited Rayleigh jet. J Flow Vis Image Process 11:1–17Google Scholar
  140. Yue Y, Powell CF, Poola R, Wang J, Schaller JK (2001) Quantitative measurements of diesel fuel spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region using X-ray absorption. At Sprays 2001:471–490Google Scholar
  141. Yule AJ, Vamvakoglou K, Shrimpton JS (1998) Break-up of a thin flat sheet adjacent to a wide high velocity air stream. In: Proceedings of ILASS-Europe’98, Manchester, UK, 6–8 July 1998, pp 18–23Google Scholar
  142. Zhao FQ, Lai MC (1995) The spray characteristics of automotive port fuel injection. A critical review. SAE technical paper ser. 950506Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNRS UMR 6614–CORIAUniversité de RouenSaint Etienne du RouvrayFrance

Personalised recommendations