A laser-induced fluorescence measurement for aqueous fluid flows with improved temperature sensitivity
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This paper presents temperature-sensitive laser-induced fluorescence measurements of Fluorescein 27 dissolved in aqueous solutions. We show that Fluorescein 27, dissolved in water and excited by a 532-nm Nd:YAG laser pulse, yields improved temperature sensitivity over traditional organic dyes such as Rhodamine B. The high temperature sensitivity of Fluorescein 27 when excited at 532 nm is due primarily to a temperature-dependent shift of the absorption spectrum to longer wavelengths for increased temperatures. The linearity of the fluorescence signal with respect to the incident laser intensity and dye concentration is reported. In addition, Fluorescein 27 dissolved in an aqueous solution remains photo-stable for >105 laser pulses at both ambient and high temperatures (T > 60°C) when excited with low-irradiance laser pulses. Finally, we demonstrate that using a dual tracer (or ratiometric) technique in which the fluorescence from Fluorescein 27 and another dye (e.g., Rhodamine B or Kiton Red 620) are detected following the 532 nm excitation results in a significantly enhanced temperature sensitivity over a single tracer measurement and previously reported dual tracer methods. Such temperature sensitivity is useful in multi-dimensional temperature imaging and temporally resolved measurements.