Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 295–307 | Cite as

Steady streaming flows near spheroids oscillated at multiple frequencies

  • Charlotte W. Kotas
  • Minami Yoda
  • Peter H. Rogers
Research Article


The results of flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of steady streaming flows near oscillating spheroids (aspect ratios of 0.75, 1, and 1.33) are reported for normalized amplitudes of 0.025–0.15 and Reynolds numbers of 27–89. The oscillations are described by either a single-frequency sine wave or the sum of two such sine waves with different frequencies. For normalized amplitudes of 5% or less, the PIV data suggest that steady streaming flow fields superpose. In other words, the time-independent portion of the velocity field created by forcing the spheroid simultaneously at two different frequencies is found to be the sum of the two steady streaming velocity fields created by forcing the body individually at each of the two frequencies.


Particle Image Velocimetry Hair Cell Stagnation Point Oblate Spheroid Particle Image Velocimetry Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under award number N00014-07-1-0238. The first author (CWK) also gratefully acknowledges support from an Achievement Rewards for College Scientists (ARCS) Foundation Fellowship and a General Electric Faculty of the Future Fellowship. The authors would also like to thank Haifeng Li for his help with the PIV processing software.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte W. Kotas
    • 1
  • Minami Yoda
    • 1
  • Peter H. Rogers
    • 1
  1. 1.G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

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