# Particles for tracing turbulent liquid helium

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## Abstract

We address the problem of making quantitative measurements of local flow velocities in turbulent liquid helium, using tracer particles. We survey and evaluate presently available particles and previous work to establish the need to develop new particles for the purpose. We present the first practical solution for visualizing fluid motions using a suspension of solid hydrogen particles with diameters of about 2 μm. The hydrogen particles can be used to study flows with Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers between 85 and 775. The particles can be used equally well with the PIV, LDV, or particle-tracking techniques.

## Keywords

Reynolds Number Particle Image Velocimetry Froude Number Liquid Helium Tracer Particle## List of symbols

*A*Hamaker’s constant

*d*particle diameter

*g*acceleration of gravity

*k*_{B}Boltzmann’s constant

*L*characteristic size of the large eddies

*N*number of particles

*n*number of particles per unit volume

*T*temperature

*U*characteristic velocity of the large eddies

*u*local and instantaneous fluid velocity

*V*_{p}total volume of the particles

*V*_{f}total volume of the fluid

*V*_{o}volume of laser sheet that is visible to the camera

*v*particle velocity

- Δ
*ρ* density difference between particle and fluid

*ε*mean energy dissipation rate

*Φ*volume fraction of particles in the fluid

*μ*dynamic viscosity of the fluid

*ν*kinematic viscosity of the fluid

*ρ*_{f}mass density of the fluid

*ρ*_{p}mass density of the particle

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

The National Science Foundation of the USA and NASA supported this work. We wish to thank Chris White for guidance, and Russ Donnelly, Joe Niemela, Steve Predko, and Joe Vinen for the cryostat.

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