Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 17–30 | Cite as

Performance of a 12-sensor vorticity probe in the near field of a rectangular turbulent jet

  • A. Cavo
  • G. Lemonis
  • Th. Panidis
  • D. D. Papailiou
Research Article


The design and operational characteristics of a 12-sensor hot wire probe for three-dimensional velocity–vorticity measurements in turbulent flow fields is described and discussed. The performance of the probe is investigated in comparison with X-sensor probe measurements in the near field of a rectangular turbulent jet with aspect ratio 6. Measurements have been conducted at Reynolds number Re D  = 21,000 at nozzle distances of x/D = 1, 3, 6 and 11, where D is the width of the nozzle. The results obtained with the 12-sensor probe compare well to the results of the X-sensor probe. Distributions of mean and fluctuating velocity–vorticity fields are presented and discussed. Among the results the most prominent is the experimental confirmation of the high levels of fluctuating vorticity in the shear layers.


Rectangular jet Vorticity Hot wire anemometry (HWA) Multi-sensor HWA 


  1. Adrian RJ (1991) Particle imaging techniques for fluid mechanics. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 20:261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agui JH, Andreopoulos Y (2003) A new laser vorticity probe-LAVOR: Its development and validation in a turbulent boundary layer. Exp Fluids 34:192–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Αntonia RA, Browne LWB, Rajagopalan S, Chambers AJ (1983) On the organized motion of the turbulent plane jet. J Fluid Mech 134:49–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Αntonia RA, Zhu Y, Kim J (1993) On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows. Exp Fluids 15:65–69Google Scholar
  5. Balint J-L, Wallace JM, Vukoslavčević P (1989) The statistical properties of the vorticity field of a two-stream mixing layer. In: Fernholz HH (ed) Advances in turbulence 2. Second European Turbulence Conference 1988, Fielder HE: 74–78. Springer, Berlin, p 552Google Scholar
  6. Balint J-L, Wallace JM, Vukoslavčević P (1991) The velocity and vorticity vector fields of a turbulent boundary layer. Part 2. Statistical properties. J Fluid Mech 228:53–86Google Scholar
  7. Browne LWB, Antonia RA, Rajagopalan S, Chambers AJ (1983) Interaction region of a two-dimensional turbulent plane jet in still air. In: Dumas R, Fulachier L (eds) Structure of complex turbulent shear flow. Springer, Berlin, pp 411–419Google Scholar
  8. Browne LWB, Antonia R A, Chambers AJ (1984) The interaction region of turbulent plane jet. J Fluid Mech 149:355–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cenedese A, Romano GP, Di Felice F (1991) Experimental testing of Taylor’s hypothesis by L.D.A. in highly turbulent flow. Exp Fluids 11:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Everett KW, Robins AG (1978) The development and structure of turbulent plane jets. J Fluid Mech 88:91–122Google Scholar
  11. Foss JF, Haw RS (1990) Vorticity and velocity measurements in a 2:1 mixing layer. In: Bower WM, Morris MJ, Samimy M (eds) A Forum on Turbulent Flow, ASME FED, vol 94, pp 115–120Google Scholar
  12. Gutmark E, Wygnanski I (1976) The planar turbulent jet. J Fluid Mech 73:465–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Honkan A, Andreopoulos Y (1997a) Vorticity, strain-rate and dissipation characteristics in the near-wall region of turbulent boundary layers. J Fluid Mech 350:29–96CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. Honkan A, Andreopoulos Y (1997b) Instantaneous three dimensional vorticity measurements in vertical flow over a delta wing. AIAA J 35:1612–1620Google Scholar
  15. Hussain AKMF, Clark R (1977) Upstream influence on the near field of a plane turbulent jet. Phys Fluids 20(9):1416–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kit E, Tsinober A, Dracos T (1993) Velocity gradients in a turbulent jet flow. Appl Sci Res 51:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kotsovinos EN (1976) A note on the spreading rate and virtual origin of a plane turbulent jet. J Fluid Mech. 77:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krothapalli A, Baganoff D, Karamcheti K (1981) On the mixing of rectangular jet. J Fluid Mech 107:201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lozanova M, Stankov P (1998) Experimental investigation on the similarity of a 3D rectangular turbulent jet. Exp Fluids 24:470–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lemonis G (1995) An experimental study of the vector fields of velocity and vorticity in turbulent flows. Doctoral thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Institute of Hidro-mechanics and Water ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  21. Lemonis G (1997) Three-dimesional measurements of velocity, velocity gradients and related properties in turbulent flows. Aerosp Sci Tech 7:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lemonis G, Dracos T (1995) A new calibration and data reduction method for turbulence measurements by multi-hotwire probes. Exp Fluids 18:319-328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lemonis G, Dracos T (1996) Determination of 3-D velocity and vorticity vectors in turbulent flows by multi-hotwire anemometry. In: Dracos T (ed) Three-dimensional velocity and vorticity measuring and image analysis techniques. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  24. Marasli B, Nguyen P, Wallace JM (1993) A calibration technique for multiple-sensor hot-wire probes and its application to vorticity measurements in the wake of a circular cylinder. Exp Fluids 15:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marsters GF, Fotneringham J (1980) The influence of aspect ratio on compressible turbulent flows from rectangular slots. Aeronaut Q 31(4):285–305Google Scholar
  26. Mi J, Antonia RA (1994) Correction to Taylor’s hypothesis in a turbulent circular jet. Phys Fluids 6(4):1548–1552zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pailhas G, Cousteix J (1986) Method for analyzing four-hot-wire probe measurements. Rech Aerosp 2:79Google Scholar
  28. Piomelli U, Balint J-L, Wallace JM (1989) On the validity of Taylor’s hypothesis for wall bounded turbulent flows. Phys Fluids A1:609Google Scholar
  29. Quinn WR (1992) Turbulent free jet flows issuing from sharp-edged rectangular slots: The influence of slot aspect ratio. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 5:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rockwell DO, Niccolls WO (1972) Natural breakdown of planar jets. Trans ASME J Basic Engn 94:720–730Google Scholar
  31. Rosemann H (1989) Einfluß der geometrie von mehrfach-hitzdrahtsonden auf die meßergebnise inturbulenten strömungen. DLR-FB 89-26Google Scholar
  32. Sato H (1960) The stability and transition of a two-dimensional jet. J Fluid Mech 7(1):53–80zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. Sfeir AA (1976) The velocity and temperature fields of rectangular jets. Int J Heat Mass Transf 19:1289–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sfeir AA (1979) Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent rectangular jets. AIAA J 17(10):1055–1060Google Scholar
  35. Sforza PM, Stasi W (1979) Heated three-dimensional turbulent jets. ASME J Heat Transf 101:353–358Google Scholar
  36. Sforza PM, Steiger MH, Trentacoste N (1966) Studies on three-dimensional viscous jets. AIAA J 5(5):800–806Google Scholar
  37. Schlichting H (1968) Boundary layer theory. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Stanley SA, Sarkar S (2000) Influence of nozzle conditions and discrete forcing on turbulent planar jets. AIAA J 38(9):1615–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stanley SA, Sarkar S, Mellado JP (2002) A study of the flow-field evolution and mixing in a planar turbulent jet using direct numerical simulation. J Fluid Mech 450:377–407zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. Tennekes H, Lumley JL (1972) A first course in turbulence. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  41. Thomas FO, Prakash KMK (1991) An experimental investigation of the natural transition of an untuned planar jet. Phys Fluids A 3(1):90–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tsinober A, Kit E, Dracos T (1992) Experimental investigation of the field of velocity gradients in turbulent flows. J Fluid Mech 242:169–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tsuchiya Y, Horikoshi C, Sato T (1986) On the spread of rectangular jets. Exp Fluids 4:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vukoslavčević P, Wallace JM (1996) A 12-sensor hot-wire probe to measure the velocity and vorticity vectors in turbulent flow. Meas Sci Technol 7:1451–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vukoslavčević P, Wallace JM, Balint J-L (1991) The velocity and vorticity vector fields of a turbulent boundary layer. Part 1. Simultaneus measurement by hot-wire anemometry. J Fluid Mech 228:25–51Google Scholar
  46. Wallace JM (1986) Methods of measuring vorticity in turbulent flows. Exp Fluids 4:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wallace JM, Foss JF (1995) The measurement of vorticity in turbulent flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 204:469–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Werner JAD, Southerland KB (1997) Experimental assessment of Taylor’s hypothesis and its applicability to dissipation estimates in turbulent flows. Phys Fluids 9(7):2101–2107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wier AD, Wood DH, Bradshaw P (1981) Interacting turbulent shear layers in a plane jet. J Fluid Mech 107:237–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zaman KBMQ, Hussain AKMF (1981) Taylor hypothesis and large-scale coherent structures. J Fluid Mech 112:379–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cavo
    • 1
  • G. Lemonis
    • 2
  • Th. Panidis
    • 1
  • D. D. Papailiou
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Applied ThermodynamicsUniversity of PatrasPatras-RioGreece
  2. 2.Centre for Renewable Energy SourcesPikermiGreece

Personalised recommendations