Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 513–530 | Cite as

Flow structure associated with multiple jets from a generic catheter tip

  • J. Foust
  • D. Rockwell
Research Article


During hemodialysis, cleansed blood is injected into the body through one or more holes at the tip of a catheter, which is typically positioned within the superior vena cava. Multiple, interacting jets can therefore be formed during the injection process. Particle image velocimetry is employed, in conjunction with a scaled-up water facility, in order to characterize the structure of multiple jets in a tandem arrangement as a function of dimensionless hole diameter and jet velocity ratio. Patterns of vorticity, Reynolds stress, and streamline topology, and their interrelationship, define the evolution and interaction of the jets.


Vorticity Particle Image Velocimetry Reynolds Stress Superior Vena Cava Leeward Side 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andreopoulos J, Rodi W (1984) Experimental investigation of jets in a cross flow. J Fluid Mech 138:93–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balducci A, Grigioni M, Querzoli G, Romano G.P, Daniele C, D’Avenio G, Barbaro V (2004) Investigation of the flow field downstream of an artificial heart valve by means of PIV and PTV. Exp Fluids 36:204–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barata JMM (1996) Fountain flows produced by multiple impinging jets in a crossflow. AIAA J 34:2523–2530Google Scholar
  4. Barata JMM, Durao DFG (2004) Laser-doppler measurements of impinging jet flows through a crossflow. Exp Fluids 36:665–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barata JMM, Durao DFG, Heitor MV, McGuirk JJ (1991) Impingement of single and twin turbulent jets through a crossflow. AIAA J 29:595–602Google Scholar
  6. Broadwell JE, Breidenthal RE (1984) Structure and mixing of a transverse jet in incompressible flow. J Fluid Mech 148:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camussi R, Guj G, Stella A (2002) Experimental study of a jet in a crossflow at very low Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 454:113–144zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coelho SLV, Hunt JCR (1989) The dynamics of the near field of strong jets in crossflows. J Fluid Mech 200:95–120zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. Cortelezzi L, Karagozian AR (2001) On the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets. J Fluid Mech 446:347–373zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. Diamond SL, Eskin SG, McIntire LV (1989) Fluid flow stimulates tissue plasminogen activator secretion by cultured human endothelial cells. Science 243:1483–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eriksson A, Persson HW, Lindtröm K (2000) Computer-controlled arbitrary flow wave form generator for physiological studies. Rev Sci Instrum 71:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eroglu A, Breidenthal RE (1998) Exponentially accelerating jet in crossflow. AIAA J 36:1002–1009Google Scholar
  13. Findley MJ, Salcudean M, Gartshore IS (1999) Jets in a crossflow; effects of geometry and blowing ratio. J Fluid Eng 121:373–378Google Scholar
  14. Finol EA, Amon CH (2001) Blood flow in abdominal aortic aneurysms: pulsatile flow hemodynamics. J Biomech Eng 123:474–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foust JF (2006) Flow structure associated with generic configurations of hemodialysis catheters. PhD thesis, Lehigh UniversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Foust JF, Rockwell DO (2006) Structure of the jet from a generic catheter tip. Exp Fluids 41:543–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fric TF, Roshko A (1994) Vortical structure in the wake of a transverse jet. J Fluid Mech 279:1–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geres LFG, Tummers MJ, Hanjalic K (2004) Experimental investigation of impinging jet arrays. Exp Fluids 36:946–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Helmus MN, Releigh C, McGrath J, Tolkoff J (1990) Medical device design—a systems approach: central venous catheters. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international SAMPE technical conference, pp 113–126Google Scholar
  20. Holdenman JD, Liscinsky DS, Bain DB (1999) Mixing of multiple jets with a confined subsonic crossflow: part II – opposed rows of orifices in rectangular ducts. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 121:551–561Google Scholar
  21. Isaac KM, Jakubowski AK (1985) Experimental study of multiple jets with a cross flow. AIAA J 23:1679–1683Google Scholar
  22. Isaac KM, Schetz JA (1982) Analysis of multiple jets in a cross-flow. J Fluid Eng 104:489–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kavsaoglu MS, Schetz JA, Jakubowski AK (1989) Rectangular jets in a crossflow. J Aircr 26:793–804Google Scholar
  24. Kelso RM, Lim TT, Perry AE (1996) An experimental study of round jets in cross-flow. J Fluid Mech 306:111–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim S-W, Benson TJ (1993) Fluid flow of a row of jets in crossflow – a numerical study. AIAA J 31:806–811zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liepsch D (2002) An introduction to biofluid mechanics-basic models and applications. J Biomech 35:415–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Makihata T, Miyai Y (1979) Trajectories of single and double jets injected into a crossflow of arbitrary velocity distribution. J Fluids Eng 101:217–223Google Scholar
  28. Marassi M, Castellini P, Pinotti M, Scalise L (2004) Cardiac valve prosthesis flow performances measured by 2D and 3D-stereo particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 36:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore JE Jr., Ku DN (1994) Pulsatile velocity measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta under resting conditions. J Biomech Eng 116: 337–345Google Scholar
  30. Moussa ZM, Trischka JW, Eskinazi S (1977) The near field in the mixing of a round jet with a cross-stream. J Fluid Mech 80:49–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muppidi S, Mahesh K (2005) Study of trajectories of jets in crossflow using direct numerical simulations. J Fluid Mech 530:81–100zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. New TH, Lim TT, Luo SC (2004) A flow field study of an elliptic jet in cross flow using DPIV technique. Exp Fluids 36:604–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peterson SD, Plesniak MW (2002) Short-hole jet-in-crossflow velocity field and its relationship to film-cooling performance. Exp Fluids 33:889–898Google Scholar
  34. Plesniak MW, Cusano DM (2005) Scalar mixing in a confined rectangular jet in crossflow. J Fluid Mech 524:1–45zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Savory E, Toy N (1991) Real-time video analysis of twin jets in a crossflow. J Fluids Eng 113:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sherif SA, Pletcher RH (1989) Measurements of the flow and turbulence characteristics of round jets in crossflow. J Fluids Eng 111:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith SH, Mungal MG (1998) Mixing, structure and scaling of the jet in crossflow. J Fluid Mech 357:83–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stein PD, Sabbah HN (1974) Measured turbulence and its effect on thrombus formation. Circ Res 35:608–614Google Scholar
  39. Su LK, Mungal MG (2004) Simultaneous measurements of scalar and velocity field evolution in turbulent crossflowing jets. J Fluid Mech 513:1–45 zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sykes RI, Lewellen WS, Parker SF (1986) On the vorticity dynamics of a turbulent jet in a crossflow. J Fluid Mech 168:393–413zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trerotola SO (2000) Hemodialysis catheter placement and management. Radiology 215: 651–658Google Scholar
  42. Twardoski ZJ, Moore HL (2001) Side holes at the tip of chronic hemodialysis catheters are harmful. J Vasc Access 2:8–16Google Scholar
  43. Yu D, Ali MdS, Lee JHW (2003) Experiments on interaction of multiple jets in crossflow. In: 16th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, July 16–18, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  44. Yuan LL, Street RL (1998) Trajectory and entrainment of a round jet in crossflow. Phys Fluids 10:2323–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics356 Packard Laboratory, 19 Memorial Drive West, Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations