Experiments in Fluids

, 40:897 | Cite as

Turbulence measurements in a transonic two-passage turbine cascade

  • Amanda VicharelliEmail author
  • John K. Eaton
Research Article


This paper presents detailed turbulence measurements in a two-dimensional, transonic, double passage turbine cascade. Particle image velocimetry was used to obtain mean velocity and turbulence measurements all around a single turbine blade within about 2 mm of the blade and wall surfaces. The passage walls were designed using an optimization procedure so that the blade surface pressure distribution matches that of the blade in an infinite cascade. The resulting experimental model captures much of the complexity of a real turbine stage (including high streamline curvature, strong accelerations, and shocks) in a passage with a continuous wall shape, allowing for high measurement resolution and well controlled boundary conditions for comparison to CFD. The measurements show that in the inviscid regions of the passage the absolute level of the turbulent fluctuations does not change significantly as the flow accelerates, while the local turbulence intensity drops rapidly as the flow accelerates. These results provide a benchmark data set that can be used to improve turbulence models.


Particle Image Velocimetry Turbulent Kinetic Energy Turbulence Intensity Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement Turbulence Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Blade true chord


Blade axial chord


Smagorinsky constant used in dissipation estimate (=0.17)


Tracer particle diameter


Estimated error for dissipation rate calculation


Turbulent kinetic energy


Turbulent kinetic energy at inlet (=55 m2/s2)


Integral length scale


Reynolds number based on blade chord and exit velocity


Reynolds number based on blade chord and inlet velocity


Distance along a streamline


Instantaneous velocity gradient tensor


Turbulent time scale (=k/ε)


Turbulence intensity [=√(2/3 k)/√(U 2 + V 2)]

us, un

RMS velocities in the streamwise and cross-stream directions

ui, uj

Instantaneous velocity components


Mean velocity averaged across inlet (=117 m/s)

U, u

Local mean and rms velocities in the X-direction

V, v

Local mean and rms velocities in the Y-direction

X, Y

Fixed Cartesian system used for measurements and calculations


Filter size (= IR size for PIV measurements)


Grid spacing used for derivative calculations


Dissipation rate


Average dissipation rate from measurements at inlet (=35,000 m2/s3)


Kolmogorov length scale


Taylor microscale


Dynamic viscosity


Density of tracer particles


Sub-grid scale stress tensor


Particle relaxation time


Kinematic viscosity


PIV displacement error



This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through contract number F49620-02-1-0284 monitored by Dr. Thomas Beutner. Early funding for the apparatus development was provided by the General Electric Corporation through the University Strategic Alliance Program. Drs Paul Durbin, Chris Elkins, Gorazd Medic, Greg Laskowski, and Paul Kodzwa, and Mr. Lakhbir Johal made substantial contributions to the research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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