Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 836–846

Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray

  • Mark Linne
  • Megan Paciaroni
  • Tyler Hall
  • Terry Parker
Research Article


We have developed an optical technique called ballistic imaging to view breakup of the near-field of an atomizing spray. In this paper, we describe the successful use of a time-gated ballistic imaging instrument to obtain single-shot images of core region breakup in a transient, single hole atomizing diesel fuel spray issuing into one atmosphere. We present a sequence of images taken at the nozzle for various times after start of injection, and a sequence taken at various positions downstream of the nozzle exit at a fixed time. These images contain signatures of periodic behavior, voids, and entrainment processes.


Core region

The near field spray zone that is characterized by large (>100 μm) fluid structures near the axis that generate primary droplets in the process of breakup

Primary breakup

The destruction of the core region (among some researchers, “primary breakup” implies a specific breakup mechanism, but we make no implication regarding mechanisms)

Primary droplets

Droplets that have clearly originated from the core


Weber number of the liquid, We≡ (ρU2L)/σ


Ohnesorge number, \(Oh\equiv \mu_\ell/\sqrt{\rho_\ell \sigma_\ell L}\)


Liquid density (kg/m3)


Gas density (kg/m3)


Characteristic velocity (m/s)


Characteristic length (usually nozzle exit diameter) (m)


Surface tension of the liquid (N/m)


Viscosity of the liquid (kg/ms)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Linne
    • 1
  • Megan Paciaroni
    • 1
  • Tyler Hall
    • 2
  • Terry Parker
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Combustion PhysicsLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden
  2. 2.Division of EngineeringColorado School of MinesGoldenUSA

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