Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 549–562 | Cite as

The generation and quantitative visualization of breaking internal waves

  • C. D. Troy
  • J. R. Koseff
Originals

Abstract

New techniques for the generation and quantitative visualization of breaking progressive internal waves are presented. Laboratory techniques applicable to general stratified flow experiments are also demonstrated. The planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique is used to produce calibrated images of the wave breaking process, and the details of the PLIF measurements are described in terms of the necessary corrections and considerations for the application of PLIF to stratified flows. Results of the flow visualization and wave generation techniques are presented, which show that the nature of internal wave breaking is strongly dependent on the type of breaking internal wave considered.

Keywords

Internal Wave Wave Train Wave Breaking Density Interface Laser Light Sheet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Robert Brown, Emily Pidgeon, and John Crimaldi for help with the experimental facility and measurement techniques, and to David Hill for alerting us to the idea of the laterally contracting channel. We also acknowledge the help of three anonymous reviewers, whose comments greatly improved this paper. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Physical Oceanography Division grant NSF OCE-9624081.

References

  1. Alayheri A, Longmire EK (1994) Particle image velocimetry in a variable density flow: application to a dynamically evolving microburst. Exp Fluid 17:434–440Google Scholar
  2. Atsavapranee P, Gharib M (1997) Structures in stratified plane mixing layers and the effects of cross-shear. J Fluid Mech 342:53–86Google Scholar
  3. Baines PG (1995) Topographic effects in stratified fluids. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett TK, VanAtta CW (1991) Experiments on the inhibition of mixing in stably stratified decaying turbulence using laser doppler anemometry and laser-induced fluorescence. Phys Fluid A 3(5):1321–1332Google Scholar
  5. Boegman L, Imberger J, Ivey GN, Antenucci JP (2003) High-frequency internal waves in large stratified lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 48(2):895–919Google Scholar
  6. Bogucki D, Dickey T, Redekopp LG (1997) Sediment resuspension and mixing by resonantly generated internal solitary waves. J Phys Oceanogr 27:1181–1196Google Scholar
  7. Cacchione DA, Wunsch C (1974) Experimental study of internal waves over a slope. J Fluid Mech 66:223–239Google Scholar
  8. Crimaldi JP, Koseff JR (2001) High resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal scalar structure of a turbulent plume. Exp Fluid 31:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daviero GJ, Roberts PJW, Maile K (2001) Refractive index matching in large-scale stratified experiments. Exp Fluid 31:119–126Google Scholar
  10. Davis RE, Acrivos A (1967) The stability of oscillatory internal waves. J Fluid Mech 30:723–736Google Scholar
  11. De Silva IPD, Imberger J, Ivey GN (1997) Localized mixing due to a breaking internal wave ray at a sloping bed. J Fluid Mech 350:1–27Google Scholar
  12. Fozdar FM, Parker GJ, Imberger J (1985) Matching temperature and conductivity sensor response characteristics. J Phys Oceanogr 15:1557–1569Google Scholar
  13. Fringer OB, Street RL (2003) The dynamics of breaking progressive interfacial waves. J Fluid Mech 494:319–353Google Scholar
  14. Fritts DC (1989) A review of gravity wave saturation processes effects and variability in the middle atmosphere. PAGEOPH 130(2):343–371Google Scholar
  15. Grue J, Jensen A, Rusas P, Sveen JK (1999) Properties of large-amplitude internal waves. J Fluid Mech 380:257–278Google Scholar
  16. Grue J, Jensen A, Rusas P, Sveen JK (2000) Breaking and broadening of internal solitary waves. J Fluid Mech 413:181–217Google Scholar
  17. Hannoun IA, List EJ (1988) Turbulent mixing at a shear-free density interface. J Fluid Mech 189:211–234Google Scholar
  18. Hannoun IA, Fernando HJS, List EJ (1988) Turbulence structure near a sharp density interface. J Fluid Mech 180:189–209Google Scholar
  19. Head MJ (1983) The use of miniature four-electrode conductivity probes for high resolution measurement of turbulent density or temperature variations in salt-stratified water flows. PhD thesis, University of California, San Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  20. Helfrich KR, Melville WK (1986) On long nonlinear internal waves over slope-shelf topography. J Fluid Mech 167:285–308Google Scholar
  21. Hill DF (2002) General density gradients in general domains: the ‘two-tank’ method revisited. Exp Fluid 32(4):434–440Google Scholar
  22. Hill DF, Foda MA (1996) Subharmonic resonance of short internal standing waves by progressive surface waves. J Fluid Mech 321:217–224Google Scholar
  23. Horn DA, Imberger J, Ivey GN (2001) The degeneration of large-scale interfacial gravity waves in lakes. J Fluid Mech 434:181–207Google Scholar
  24. Horn DA, Imberger J, Ivey GN, Redekopp LG (2002) A weakly nonlinear model of long internal waves in closed basins. J Fluid Mech 467:269–287Google Scholar
  25. Ivey GN, Nokes RI (1989) Vertical mixing due to breaking waves on sloping boundaries. J Fluid Mech 204:479–500Google Scholar
  26. Ivey GN, Winters KB, DeSilva IPD (2000). Turbulent mixing in a sloping benthic boundary layer energized by internal waves. J Fluid Mech 418:59–76Google Scholar
  27. Kamachi M, Honji H (1988) Interaction of interfacial and internal waves. Fluid Dyn Res 2:229–241Google Scholar
  28. Kao TW, Pan F-S, Renouard D (1985) Internal solitons on the pycnocline: generation, propagation, and shoaling and breaking over a slope. J Fluid Mech 159:19–53Google Scholar
  29. Koop CG, McGee B (1986) Measurements of internal gravity waves in a continuously stratified fluid. J Fluid Mech 172:453–480Google Scholar
  30. Leichter JJ, Wing SR, Miller SL, Denny MW (1996) Pulsed delivery of subthermocline water to Conch Reef (Florida Keys) by internal tidal bores. Limnol Oceanogr 41(7):1490–1501Google Scholar
  31. Longuet-Higgins MS (1974) Breaking waves in deep or shallow water. In: Proceedings of the 10th symposium on naval hydrodynamics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1974, pp 597–605Google Scholar
  32. Lueck RG, Mudge TD (1997) Topographically induced mixing around a shallow seamount. Science 276:1831–1833Google Scholar
  33. Maxworthy T (1980) On the formation of nonlinear internal waves from the gravitational collapse of mixed regions in two and three dimensions. J Fluid Mech 96(1):47–64Google Scholar
  34. McDougall TJ (1979) On the elimination of refractive-index variations in turbulent density-stratified liquid flows. J Fluid Mech 93:83–96Google Scholar
  35. McEwan AD (1983) Internal mixing in stratified fluids. J Fluid Mech 128:59–80Google Scholar
  36. McEwan AD, Robinson RM (1974) Parametric instability of internal gravity waves. J Fluid Mech 67:667–687Google Scholar
  37. McGrath JL, Fernando HJS, Hunt JCR (1997) Turbulence, waves and mixing at shear-free density interfaces. Part 2: laboratory experiments. J Fluid Mech 347:235–261Google Scholar
  38. Michallet H, Barthelemy E (1997) Ultrasonic probes and data processing to study interfacial solitary waves. Exp Fluid 22:380–386Google Scholar
  39. Michallet H, Ivey GN (1999) Experiments on mixing due to internal solitary waves breaking on uniform slopes. J Geophys Res 104:13467–13477Google Scholar
  40. Mowbray DE, Rarity BSH (1967) A theoretical and experimental investigation of the phase configuration of internal waves of small amplitude in a density stratified fluid. J Fluid Mech 28:1–16Google Scholar
  41. Ostrovsky LA, Zaborskikh DV (1996) Damping of internal gravity waves by small-scale turbulence. J Phys Oceanogr 26(3):388–397Google Scholar
  42. Papanicolaou PN, List EJ (1988) Investigations of round vertical turbulent buoyant jets. J Fluid Mech 195:341–391Google Scholar
  43. Phillips OM (1966) Dynamics of the upper ocean. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. Pidgeon EJ (1999) An experimental investigation of breaking wave induced turbulence. PhD thesis, Stanford University, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  45. Rapp RJ, Melville WK (1990) Laboratory measurements of deep-water breaking waves. Phil Trans Roy Soc Ser A 331:735–800Google Scholar
  46. Rehmann CR (1996) Effects of stratification and molecular diffusivity on the mixing efficiency of decaying grid turbulence. PhD thesis, Stanford University, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  47. Schilling V, Etling D (1996) Vertical mixing of passive scalars owing to breaking gravity waves. Dyn Atmos Ocean 23:371–378Google Scholar
  48. Spedding GR (2001) Anisotropy in turbulence profiles of stratified wakes. Phys Fluid 13(8):2361–2372Google Scholar
  49. Staquet C, Sommeria J (2002) Internal gravity waves: from instabilities to turbulence. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 34:559–593Google Scholar
  50. Sullivan GD, List EJ (1993) An experimental investigation of vertical mixing in two-layer density-stratified shear flows. Dyn Atmos Oceans 19:147–174Google Scholar
  51. Taylor JR (1992) The energetics of breaking events in a resonantly forced internal wave field. J Fluid Mech 239:309–340Google Scholar
  52. Teoh SG, Ivey GN, Imberger J (1997) Laboratory study of the interaction between two internal wave rays. J Fluid Mech 336:91–122Google Scholar
  53. Thorpe SA (1968a) On standing internal gravity waves of finite amplitude. J Fluid Mech 32(3):489–528Google Scholar
  54. Thorpe SA (1968b) On the shape of progressive internal waves. Phil Trans Roy Soc Ser A 263:563–613Google Scholar
  55. Thorpe SA (1978) On the shape and breaking of finite amplitude internal gravity waves in a shear flow. J Fluid Mech 85(1):7–31Google Scholar
  56. Thorpe SA (1994) Statically unstable layers produced by overturning internal gravity waves. J Fluid Mech 260:333–350Google Scholar
  57. Troy CD (2003) The breaking and mixing of progressive internal waves. Stanford University, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  58. Turner JS (1973) Buoyancy effects in fluids. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Wallace BC, Wilkinson DL (1988) Run-up of internal waves on a gentle slope in a two-layered system. J Fluid Mech 191:419–442Google Scholar
  60. Wessels F, Hutter K (1996) Interaction of internal waves with a topographic sill in a two-layered fluid. J Phys Oceanogr 26:5–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Fluid Mechanics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations