Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 334–343 | Cite as

Role of the shear layer instability in the near wake behavior of two side-by-side circular cylinders

  • C. BrunEmail author
  • D. Tenchine
  • E. J. Hopfinger
Original

Abstract

Wakes, and their interaction behind two parallel cylinders lying in a plane perpendicular to the flow, have been investigated experimentally in the sub-critical Reynolds number regime. The experiments were performed in a water channel using laser Doppler velocimetry. The gap between the two cylinders was less than the cylinder diameter, a geometry referred to as strong interaction configuration. In this case the blockage is strong and a gap-jet appears between the cylinders. Two flow regimes of the near wake region have been identified: one below a critical Reynolds number Re c ∈]1000;1700[, where the gap jet is stably deflected to one side and the double near-wake becomes asymmetric; the other, above Re c, where the gap-jet deflection is unstable and a random flopping phenomenon takes place. When Re<Re c, two different Strouhal numbers are identified, related to the Kármán vortex shedding behind each cylinder. When Re>Re c, a third frequency appears in the near wake, related to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in the separated shear layer of the cylinders [Prasad A, Williamson CHK (1997) J Fluid Mech 333:375]. The observed flopping behavior is attributed to the birth of these Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and their intermittent nature. Further downstream, beyond about five cylinder diameters, the random flopping flow phenomena disappear while a slightly asymmetric single wake persists. It is characterized by a Strouhal number St=0.13, a value that one would normally measure behind a single cylinder of twice its diameter.

Keywords

Vortex Reynolds Number Shear Layer Strouhal Number Laser Doppler Velocimetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Comissariat à l’Energie Atomique for providing the experimental support for the study. The first author also thanks Jan Dusek for interesting discussions and advices.

References

  1. Barlow J, Rae W, Pope A (1999) Low speed wind tunnel testing, 3rd edn. Wiley, Indianapolis, IN, pp 328–366Google Scholar
  2. Batchelor GK (1969) Computation of the energy spectrum in homogeneous 2-D turbulence. Phys Fluids 12:233Google Scholar
  3. Bearman PW, Wadcok AJ (1973) The interaction between a pair of circular cylinders normal to a stream. J Fluid Mech 61:499Google Scholar
  4. Bloor M (1964) The transition to turbulence in the wake of a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 19:290Google Scholar
  5. Brown G, Roshko A (1974) On density effects and large structures in turbulent mixing layers. J Fluid Mech 64:775Google Scholar
  6. Corrsin S (1963) Turbulence: Experimental methods. In: Flugge S, Truesdell C (eds) Handbuch der Physik (Encyclopedia of Physics), Vol 8. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 524Google Scholar
  7. Groth J, Johansson AV (1988) Turbulence reduction by screens. J Fluid Mech 197:139Google Scholar
  8. Halim M, Turner J (1986) Measurements of cross flow development in a staggered tube bundle. In: Proc 3rd Int Symp Appl of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mech, Lisbon, Portugal, 7–9 July1986, Paper No. 21.7Google Scholar
  9. Igarashi T (1981) Characteristics of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem. B JSME 24:323Google Scholar
  10. Ishigai S, Nishikawa X, Nishimura X, Cho X (1972) Experimental study on structure of gas flow in tube banks with axis normal to the flow. B JSME 15:949Google Scholar
  11. Kamemoto K (1976) Formation and interaction of two parallel vortex streets. B JSME 19:283Google Scholar
  12. Kelemenis C (1993) PhD Thesis, University of ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim H, Durbin P (1988) Investigation of the flow between a pair of circular cylinders in the flopping regime. J Fluid Mech 196:431Google Scholar
  14. Kiya M, Arie M, Tamura H, Mori H (1980) Vortex shedding for two circular cylinders in staggered arrangement. J Fluid Eng 102:166Google Scholar
  15. Kiya M, Mochizuki O, Ido Y, Suzuki T, Arai T (1992) Flip-flopping flow around two bluff bodies in tandem arrangement. In: Eckelmann H, Graham JMR, Huerre P, Monkewitz PA (eds) Bluff-body wakes, dynamics and instabilities (Proc IUTAM Symp, 7–11 September 1992, Gottingen, Germany). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  16. Kourta A, Boisson H, Chassaing P, Ha Minh H (1987) Non-linear interaction and the transition to turbulence in the wake of a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 181:141Google Scholar
  17. Lesieur M (1997) Turbulence in fluids, 3rd (revised and enlarged) edn. Kluwer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. McGrath G (1991) The application of L.D.A. to measurement of turbulent flow in tube bundles and ducts. PhD Thesis, QMW College, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Norberg C (1994) An experimental investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder: influence of aspect ratio. J Fluid Mech 258:287Google Scholar
  20. Ohya Y (1985) The origin of biased gap flow behind multiple bluff bodies in a side-by-side arrangement. Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, Japan 30:103Google Scholar
  21. Ohya Y, Okajima A, Hayashi M (1989) Wake interference and vortex shedding. In: Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics 2:323Google Scholar
  22. Okajima A, Sugitani K, Mizota T (1986) Flow around a pair of circular cylinders arranged side by side at high Reynolds numbers (in japanese). Trans JSME 52:2844Google Scholar
  23. Peschard I, Le Gal P (1996) Couple wakes of cylinders. Phys Rev Lett 77:3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Prasad A, Williamson C (1997) The instability of the shear layer separating from a bluff body. J Fluid Mech 333:375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roshko A (1961) Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at very high Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 10:345Google Scholar
  26. Schlichting H, Gersten K (2000) Boundary-layer theory, 8th (revised and enlarged) edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Spivack H (1946) Vortex frequency of flow pattern in the wake of two parallel cylinders at varied spacing normal to an air stream. J Aeronaut Sci 13:289Google Scholar
  28. Sumner D, Wong S, Price SJ, Paidoussis MP (1999) Fluid behaviour of side-by-side circular cylinders in steady cross-flow. J Fluid Struct 13:309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Szepessy S, Bearman PW (1992) Aspect ratio and end plate effects on vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. J Fluid Mech 234:191Google Scholar
  30. Tan-Atichat J, Nagib H, Loehrke R (1982) Interaction of free stream turbulence with screens and grids; a balance between turbulence scales. J Fluid Mech 114:501Google Scholar
  31. Wei T, Smith C (1986) Secondary vortices in the wake of circular cylinders. J Fluid Mech 169:513Google Scholar
  32. Williamson C (1985) Evolution of a single wake behind a pair of bluff bodies. J Fluid Mech 159:1Google Scholar
  33. Winant C, Browand F (1974) Vortex pairing: the dynamics of turbulent mixing layer growth at moderate Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 63:237Google Scholar
  34. Xu S, Zhou Y, So R (2002) Reynolds number dependence of the flow behind two side-by-side cylinders. Paper IMECE2002–32176 from the 5th Int Symp Fluid-structure Interaction, Aeroelasticity, Flow-induced Vibration and Noise (2002 ASME Int Mech Eng Congress and Exposition), 17–22 November 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp 329–334Google Scholar
  35. Xu S, Zhou Y, So R (2003) Reynolds number effects on the flow structure behind two side-by-side cylinders. Phys Fluids 15:1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zdravkovich MM (1988) Review of interference-induced oscillations in flow past two parallel circular cylinders in various arrangements. J Wind Eng Ind Aerod 28:183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang HJ, Zhou Y (2001) Effect of unequal cylinder spacing on vortex streets behind three side-by-side cylinders. Phys Fluids 13:3675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou Y, Wang ZJ, So RMC, Xu SJ, Jin W (2001) Free vibrations of two side-by-side cylinders in a cross-flow. J Fluid Mech 443:197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhou Y, Zhang HJ, Yiu MW (2002) The turbulent wake of two side-by-side circular cylinders. J Fluid Mech 458:303Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DRN/DTP/SETEX/LETSComissariat à l’Énergie AtomiqueGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.LEGI, CNRSUniversité Joseph Fourier, INPGGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.Polytech’ Orléans/LMEOrleans CEDEX 2France

Personalised recommendations