Type of patients in whom biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy can be observed without salvage therapy

  • Kazuhiro MatsumotoEmail author
  • Naoya Niwa
  • Masayuki Hagiwara
  • Takeo Kosaka
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka
  • Toshikazu Takeda
  • Shinya Morita
  • Ryuichi Mizuno
  • Toshiaki Shinojima
  • Satoshi Hara
  • Hiroshi Asanuma
  • Mototsugu Oya
Original Article



To examine the prognosis after BCR with and without salvage therapy, including radiation and/or androgen deprivation.


The study population consisted of 431 patients, all of whom underwent radical prostatectomy and developed BCR (PSA > 0.2 ng/mL). According to the two risk factors [Gleason score ≥ 8 and PSA-doubling time (DT) < 6 months], we divided the patients into two groups. The high/intermediate-risk group consisted of patients with both or one risk factor. On the other hand, patients with neither factor were in the low-risk group. We set the starting point at the timing of BCR, and the endpoints were development to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and cancer-specific death.


During the mean follow-up period of 8.3 years after BCR, CRPC was observed in 49 patients (11.4%), and 21 patients (4.9%) died due to prostate cancer. We first divided the 191 high/intermediate-risk patients according to the PSA level (PSA < 1.0 ng/mL, PSA 1.0–4.0, and PSA > 4.0 or no therapy) at the initiation of salvage therapy, including radiation and/or androgen deprivation. We found that delayed (PSA > 4.0 ng/mL) or no salvage therapy was significantly associated with CRPC and cancer-specific death. In the 240 low-risk patients, Kaplan–Meier curves demonstrated no significant difference in CRPC-free survival or cancer-specific survival within 10 years from the timing of BCR.


Observation after BCR without salvage therapy or delayed administration may be an option for low-risk patients with a Gleason score ≤ 7 and PSA-DT ≥ 6 months when their life expectancy is within 10 years.


Radical prostatectomy Biochemical recurrence PSA-doubling time Castration-resistant prostate cancer Gleason score 


Author contributions

KM project development, data collection, data analysis, and manuscript writing. NN data collection. MH data collection. TK manuscript editing. NT manuscript editing. TT manuscript editing. SM: manuscript editing. RM manuscript editing. TS manuscript editing. SH: data collection. HA manuscript editing. MO manuscript editing and supervision.


There are no funding sources. There are no financial disclosures from any authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict to declare.

Statement of human rights

This retrospective study was conducted after receiving approval from the institutional review board.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Matsumoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naoya Niwa
    • 2
  • Masayuki Hagiwara
    • 1
  • Takeo Kosaka
    • 1
  • Nobuyuki Tanaka
    • 1
  • Toshikazu Takeda
    • 1
  • Shinya Morita
    • 1
  • Ryuichi Mizuno
    • 1
  • Toshiaki Shinojima
    • 1
  • Satoshi Hara
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Asanuma
    • 1
  • Mototsugu Oya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyKeio University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of UrologyTokyo Saiseikai Central HospitalTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of UrologyKawasaki Municipal HospitalKawasakiJapan

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