Impact of alcohol consumption on the risk of developing bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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Epidemiologic studies that investigated alcohol consumption in relation to the risk of bladder cancer (BCa) have demonstrated inconsistent results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to investigate the association of alcohol including different types of alcoholic beverages consumption with the risk of BCa.
Materials and methods
A systematic search of Web of Science, Medline/PubMed and Cochrane library was performed in May 2018. Studies were considered eligible if they assessed the risk of BCa due to alcohol consumption (moderate or heavy dose) and different types of alcoholic beverages (moderate or heavy dose) in multivariable analysis in the general population (all genders, males or females) or compared with a control group of individuals without BCa. Study design: observational cohorts or case–control.
Sixteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of BCa in the entire population. Sub-group and sensitivity analyses revealed that heavy alcohol consumption increased significantly the risk of BCa in the Japanese population, RR 1.31 (95% CI 1.08–1.58, P < 0.01) in the multivariable analysis, and in males RR of 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.92, P < 0.01), with no significant statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, heavy consumption of spirits drinks increased the risk of BCa in males, RR 1.42 (95% CI 1.15–1.75, P < 0.01).
In this meta-analysis, moderate and heavy alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of bladder cancer significantly. However, heavy consumption of alcohol might increase the risk of BCa in males and in some specific populations.
KeywordsAlcohol consumption Cancer risk Bladder cancer
M.D.V had an EUSP lab/clinical fellowship awarded by EAU (European Association of Urology) and an Ernst Mach Grant awarded by OeAD, Austria.
Protocol/project development: MDV, TI, BR, SK, RM, MF, SFS, CS. Data collection or management: MDV, TI, BR, SK, RM, MF, SFS, CS. Data analysis: MDV, TI, BR, SK, RM, MF, SFS, CS. Manuscript writing/editing: MDV, TI, BR, SK, RM, MF, SFS, CS.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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