Green-laser assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy for selective muscle-invasive bladder cancer: technique and initial outcome
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To describe a green-laser marking technique to assist partial cystectomy, which allows accurate identification of tumour margins, and provide our initial experience with ten patients.
Between January 2014 and February 2018, ten patients suspected with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and request of bladder-preserving treatment were selected. In each case, bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed before green-laser assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy. Under the direct view of cystoscope, the front-firing green-laser incision was performed 0.5–1 cm away from the exterior margin of lesion with adequate depth into the fat tissue. Tumours were then en bloc removed via laparoscope under the tracing of laser beam.
The location of 12 tumours in 10 patients was superior wall in 7 cases, lateral wall in 3 cases, anterior wall in 1 case, and posterior wall in 1 case. All procedures were completed without serious complications. The median operating time was 270 (210–360) min with a median haemoglobin decrease of 11 (3–38) g/L. Nine patients were high-grade transitional cell carcinoma and one patient was urachal carcinoma, and the clinical stage was pT1 in 1 case, pT2 in 4 cases, and pT3 in 5 cases. The pathological evaluation of tumour margins was negative in 10 patients. During the follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis were detected in 8 patients, but 2 patients presented regional recurrence.
The use of green-laser marking technique during laparoscopic partial cystectomy is a feasible manoeuvre in assisting the accurate incision and minimizing injury to the remaining bladder.
KeywordsMuscle-invasive bladder cancer Partial cystectomy Green-laser New technique
This study was supported by the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China (No. XJTU1AF-CRF-2015–002 to DH).
Fan: project development and manuscript writing. Wu: data analysis and manuscript writing. PZ: data collection and manuscript writing. DH: project development.
The authors declare that they have no relevant financial interests.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement of human rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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