World Journal of Urology

, Volume 37, Issue 11, pp 2517–2522 | Cite as

The discrepancy between European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines and daily practice in the evaluation and management of nocturia: results of a Dutch survey

  • M. S. Rahnama’iEmail author
  • D. M. J. Vrijens
  • S. Hajebrahimi
  • G. A. van Koeveringe
  • T. A. T. Marcelissen
Original Article


Background and objective

In addition to the evaluation of voiding symptoms, in the evaluation of patients with nocturia, one should also consider other related causes such as sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS), diabetes and heart failure. In this study, we have aimed to assess the current knowledge and implementation of the EAU guidelines regarding nocturia in common urological practice in the Netherlands.

Setting and participants

In a national cross-sectional survey distributed among 450 urologists and urology residents in the Netherlands, the implementation of the recommendations of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on nocturia evaluation and management was studied.

Results and limitations

This survey revealed that only some aspects of the EAU guidelines are applied in the daily clinical practice and that some important parts are not. For example, only a minority asks about alcohol consumption and symptoms suggestive for diabetes or OSAS. In addition, a majority reported to use a bladder diary for 1–3 days instead of for a minimum of 3 days as recommended by the EAU guidelines. In the management of nocturia, a trial of timed diuretic therapy is only reported by a minority, whereas the use of beta-3 antagonists, which is not mentioned in the guidelines, is applied by a large majority. Desmopressin recommended for nocturnal polyuria is prescribed by two-third of Dutch urologists.


These observations mandate better education and campaigns to raise the awareness on the EAU-guideline recommendations for nocturia.


Nocturia Guidelines EAU Nocturnal polyuria 


Authors’ contribution

MSR: protocol/project development; data collection or management; data analysis manuscript writing/editing. DMJV: data collection or management; data analysis manuscript writing/editing. SH: data analysis manuscript writing/editing. GAK: data analysis manuscript writing/editing. TATM: protocol/project development; data collection or management; data analysis manuscript writing/editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniklinik RWTH AachenAachenGermany
  2. 2.Department of UrologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Society of Urological Research and Education (SURE)HeerlenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Maastricht University Medical CentreMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Urology, Research Centre of Evidence Based MedicineTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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