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Developments in oligometastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer

  • Ken Chow
  • Patrick McCoy
  • Ryan Stuchbery
  • Niall M. Corcoran
  • Christopher M. Hovens
Topic Paper

Abstract

Purpose

To review the current understanding and recent developments regarding the concept of oligometastases in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases, including PubMed and Embase was conducted for the search term ‘oligometastases’ in combinations with ‘prostate cancer’, ‘hormone sensitive’, ‘genetics’, and ‘molecular’. All articles relating to these search terms have been taken into account.

Results

Prostate cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of these cancer-related deaths result from metastases. Currently, there is a dichotomy in prostate cancer management where it is only deemed curable if it is localized, while any signs of metastasis relegate patients to systemic therapies to delay their inevitable death. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that aggressive treatments during the stable ‘oligometastatic’ state can have significant clinical benefits and potentially ‘reset’ prostate cancer to an earlier time point in cancer progression. This concept of oligometastases has been adopted in other cancer settings such as colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancers.

Conclusion

Multiple clinical and molecular biological studies have been influential in the support of a stable state in metastatic cancer progression coined ‘oligometastases’. As our understanding of oligometastases in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer develops, we will be able to molecularly define the oligometastatic state and develop clinically available diagnostic tests. In doing so, prostate cancer patients will experience significant clinical benefits and the burden of prostate cancer worldwide will likely be reduced.

Keywords

Oligometastases Metastasis Prostate cancer Hormone sensitive Genetics Review 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Australian Prostate Cancer Centre Epworth is supported by the Australian Government as represented by the Department of Health and Ageing. KC is supported by a Postgraduate Medical Research Scholarship from the Prostate Cancer Research Fund, and the Research Training Program Scholarship from the Australian Commonwealth Government. NMC is supported by a Movember—Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride Clinician Scientist Award through Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia’s Research Program.

Author contributions

Chow: Project development, data collection and analysis, manuscript writing/editing. McCoy: Data collection and analysis, manuscript writing/editing. Stuchbery: Data analysis, manuscript writing/editing. Corcoran: Project development, manuscript writing/editing. Hovens: Project development, data analysis, manuscript writing/editing.

Funding

The work had no specific source of funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This review does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not solicited as it was not applicable in this review.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Chow
    • 1
    • 2
  • Patrick McCoy
    • 1
  • Ryan Stuchbery
    • 3
  • Niall M. Corcoran
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christopher M. Hovens
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of UrologyRoyal Melbourne HospitalParkvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre EpworthRichmondAustralia

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