Fiducial markers: can the urologist do better?
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Radiotherapy to the bladder has a risk of toxicity to pelvic structures, which can be reduced by using fiducial markers for targeting. Injectable contrast offers an alternative marker to gold seeds, which may fall out or exacerbate scarring. Combining contrast agents with tissue glue can minimize dispersion through tissue, enhancing its utility. We evaluated combinations of contrast agents and tissue glue using porcine bladder, for feasibility and utility as fiducial markers to aid image-guided radiotherapy.
Different contrast agents (Lipiodol ultra or Urografin) were combined with different tissue glues (Histoacryl, Tisseal or Glubran2). The mixtures were endoscopically injected into porcine bladder submucosa to identify the area of interest with multiple fiducial markers. The porcine bladders were imaged within a phantom porcine pelvis using standard radiation therapy imaging modalities. The feasibility as an injectable fiducial marker and visibility of each fiducial marker on imaging were scored as binary outcomes by two proceduralists and two radiation therapists, respectively.
Lipiodol–glue combinations were successfully administered as multiple fiducials that were evident on CT and CBCT. Lipiodol with Histoacryl or Glubran2 was visible on kV imaging. The Lipiodol Glubran2 combination was deemed subjectively easiest to use at delivery, and a better fiducial on KV imaging.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of mixing contrast medium Lipiodol with Histoacryl or Glubran2 tissue glue, which, injected endoscopically, provides discrete and visible fiducial markers to aid image-guided radiotherapy. Although promising, further study is required to assess the durability of these markers through a course of radiotherapy.
KeywordsFiducial markers Prostate cancer Bladder cancer Endoscopy Image-guided radiotherapy Cone beam computed tomography Iodized oil Tissue glue
CB: data collection or management. KB: data collection or management. MC: protocol/project development. CD: Data analysis, manuscript writing/editing. FF: protocol/project development, data analysis. TJ: protocol/project development. DLJ: protocol/project development, data analysis, manuscript writing/editing. VK: manuscript writing/editing. ML: data collection or management. NL: protocol/project development, manuscript writing/editing. RO: data collection or management. SS: protocol/project development, manuscript writing/editing. AV: data collection or management. MW: protocol/project development.
This study was not funded. The Lipiodol Ultra, Histoacryl, Tisseal, and Glubran2 were donated by Aspen, B Braun, Baxter and Matrix Surgical supplies, respectively, for the purpose of this comparison study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All of the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any experimental studies with human participants or live animals performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Ethics approval was sought from the institutional ethics committee but deemed redundant by the ethics committee, as porcine bladders were used in isolation.
No patient data were included in this article.
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