World Journal of Urology

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 3–13 | Cite as

Epidemiology, prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation: update of the ICUD–SIU joint consultation on bladder cancer

  • Mario I. Fernández
  • Maurizio Brausi
  • Peter E. Clark
  • Michael S. Cookson
  • H. Barton Grossman
  • Makarand Khochikar
  • Lambertus A. Kiemeney
  • Bernard Malavaud
  • Rafael Sanchez-Salas
  • Mark S. Soloway
  • Robert S. Svatek
  • Raghunandan Vikram
  • Alina Vrieling
  • Ashish M. KamatEmail author
Topic Paper



To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics.


A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system.


BC is the ninth most common cancer worldwide with 430,000 new cases in 2012. Currently, approximately 165,000 people die from the disease annually. Absolute incidence and prevalence of BC are expected to rise significantly during the next decades because of population ageing. Tobacco smoking is still the main risk factor, accounting for about 50% of cases. Smoking cessation is, therefore, the most relevant recommendation in terms of prevention, as the risk of developing BC drops almost 40% within 5 years of cessation. BC screening is not recommended for the general population. BC diagnosis remains mainly based on cystoscopy, but development of new endoscopic and imaging technologies may rapidly change the diagnosis algorithm. The same applies for local, regional, and distant staging modalities.


A thorough understanding of epidemiology, risk factors, early detection strategies, diagnosis, and evaluation is essential for correct, evidence-based management of BC patients. Recent developments in endoscopic techniques and imaging raise the hope for providing better risk-adopted approaches and thereby improving clinical outcomes.


Neoplasm, urinary bladder Risk factor Primary prevention Early detection of cancer Cystoscopy Neoplasm staging 


Author contributions

MIF: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. LAK: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. MSC: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. AV: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. HBG: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. MK: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. PEC: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. BM: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. RS-S: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. MSS: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. RS-S: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. RV: data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. MB: project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing. AMK: project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, and editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

MCookson has received personal fees from Jansenn Biotech, MDxHealth, Astellas Pharma, Bayer, Genomic Health, Carden Jennings, Abbott, and Altor. HB Grossman has received personal fees from Abbott Molecular, Cepheid, and Nucleix. A Kamat is a consultant to the following companies; TMC Innovation, Merck, BMS, Arquer, MDxHealth, Photocure, Theralase, Cepheid, Medac, Asieris, Pfizer, and Astra Zeneca and has received research funding from FKD, Merck, Telesta, and Adolor. In addition, A Kamat has a patent CyPRIT—Cytokine Panel for Response to Intravesical Immunotherapy pending. The rest of the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not required, since this article does not contain any studies with human participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario I. Fernández
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maurizio Brausi
    • 3
  • Peter E. Clark
    • 4
  • Michael S. Cookson
    • 5
  • H. Barton Grossman
    • 6
  • Makarand Khochikar
    • 7
  • Lambertus A. Kiemeney
    • 8
  • Bernard Malavaud
    • 9
  • Rafael Sanchez-Salas
    • 10
  • Mark S. Soloway
    • 11
  • Robert S. Svatek
    • 12
  • Raghunandan Vikram
    • 13
  • Alina Vrieling
    • 8
  • Ashish M. Kamat
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyClínica AlemanaSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineClínica Alemana Universidad del DesarrolloSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Prostate Cancer UnitB. Ramazzini HospitalModenaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Urology, Atrium HealthLevine Cancer InstituteCharlotteUSA
  5. 5.Department of UrologyThe University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center & The Stephenson Cancer CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  6. 6.Department of Urology, Unit 1373The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  7. 7.Department of UrologySiddhi Vinayak Ganapati Cancer HospitalMirajIndia
  8. 8.Radboud Institute for Health SciencesRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  9. 9.Department of UrologyToulouse Cancer InstituteToulouseFrance
  10. 10.Department of UrologyL’Institut Mutualiste MontsourisParisFrance
  11. 11.Department of UrologyMemorial Healthcare SystemMiamiUSA
  12. 12.Department of UrologyUniversity of Texas HealthSan AntonioUSA
  13. 13.Department of RadiologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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