How to accelerate the upper urinary stone discharge after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for < 15 mm upper urinary stones: a prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial about external physical vibration lithecbole (EPVL)
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To asset the efficacy and safety of EPVL plus ESWL compared with ESWL alone for the treatment of simple upper urinary stones (< 15 mm).
Materials and methods
All patients with upper urinary stones (< 15 mm) were prospectively randomized into two groups. In treatment group, patients were assigned to immediate EPVL after ESWL, while in control group, ESWL alone was offered. All patients were reexamined at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after ESWL. Stone size, stone location, stone-free rate (SFR), and complication rate were compared.
56 males and 20 females in treatment group were compared to 52 male and 25 females in control group (p = 0.404). Median ages were 42.9 ± 1.5 years in treatment group and 42.7 ± 1.3 years in control group (p = 0.943). Median stone size was 10.0 ± 0.4 mm (3–15 mm) in treatment group and 10.4 ± 0.4 mm (4–15 mm) in control group (p = 0.622). The stone clearance rate in treatment and control group at 1 week after ESWL was 51.3% (39/76) and 45.4% (35/77) (p > 0.05), at 2 weeks was 81.6% (62/76) and 64.9% (50/77) (p < 0.05), and at 4 weeks was 90.8% (69/76) and 75.3% (58/77) (p < 0.05), respectively.
EPVL is a noninvasive, effective, and safe adjunctive treatment which increases and accelerates upper urinary stones discharge after ESWL treatment.
KeywordsEPVL ESWL Upper urinary stone Randomized controlled trial
We appreciate the help of our colleagues from the department of 8 hospitals. In addition, we would like to express our sincere thanks to professor Alberto Gurioli for his excellent comments and suggestions in the preparation of the article.
GZ: project development and data analysis. ZY: project development and data analysis. WW: data collection and manuscript writing. ZY: data collection and manuscript writing. FT, CX, YW, XG, XC, RW, JY, XW, WG, CH, JG, and JZ: data collection. AG: manuscript writing
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was supported in part by research grants from Science and Technology Project of Guangzhou (201604020001 and 201607010359), General Project of Guangzhou Education Bureau (1201410963), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81570633), and Educational Commission of Guangdong Province of China (2015KTSCX115).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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