Vitamin D and prostate cancer prognosis: a Mendelian randomization study
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Decreased vitamin D levels have been associated with prostate cancer, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the group-specific component (GC) gene (T > G, rs2282679) has been associated with 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D and 1.25 dihydroxy (1.25-OH2) vitamin D levels.
To examine the hypothesized inverse relationship between vitamin D status and prostate cancer, we studied the association between this SNP and prostate cancer outcome in the prospective PROCAGENE study comprising 702 prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 82 months.
GC rs2282679 genotypes were not associated with biochemical recurrence [hazard ratios (HR) 0.91, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.12; p = 0.36], development of metastases (HR 1.20, 95 % CI 0.88–1.63; p = 0.25) or overall survival (HR 1.10; 95 % CI 0.84–1.43; p = 0.50).
A causal role of vitamin D status, as reflected by GC rs2282679 genotype, in disease progression and mortality in prostate cancer patients is unlikely.
KeywordsVitamin D Prostate cancer Genetics
This work was supported by BioPersMed (COMET K-Project 825329), which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) and the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour/the Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth (BMWA/BMWFJ) and the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG). This study was also supported by the Anniversary Fund of the Österreichische Nationalbank, Grant No. 11686.
O. Trummer: Protocol/project development, Data collection or management, Data analysis, Manuscript writing/editing. U. Langsenlehner: Data collection or management. S. Krenn-Pilko: Data collection or management. T.R. Pieber: Protocol/project development. B. Obermayer-Pietsch: Protocol/project development, Manuscript writing/editing. A. Gerger: Protocol/project development, Manuscript writing/editing. W. Renner: Protocol/project development, Data collection or management, Data analysis, Manuscript writing/editing. T. Langsenlehner: Protocol/project development, Data collection or management, Manuscript writing/editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study has been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Medical University of Graz and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. Written informed consent was obtained from all participating subjects.
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