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World Journal of Urology

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 337–345 | Cite as

Personalized 3D printed model of kidney and tumor anatomy: a useful tool for patient education

  • Jean-Christophe BernhardEmail author
  • Shuji Isotani
  • Toru Matsugasumi
  • Vinay Duddalwar
  • Andrew J. Hung
  • Evren Suer
  • Eduard Baco
  • Raj Satkunasivam
  • Hooman Djaladat
  • Charles Metcalfe
  • Brian Hu
  • Kelvin Wong
  • Daniel Park
  • Mike Nguyen
  • Darryl Hwang
  • Soroush T. Bazargani
  • Andre Luis de Castro Abreu
  • Monish Aron
  • Osamu Ukimura
  • Inderbir S. Gill
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the impact of 3D printed models of renal tumor on patient’s understanding of their conditions. Patient understanding of their medical condition and treatment satisfaction has gained increasing attention in medicine. Novel technologies such as additive manufacturing [also termed three-dimensional (3D) printing] may play a role in patient education.

Methods

A prospective pilot study was conducted, and seven patients with a primary diagnosis of kidney tumor who were being considered for partial nephrectomy were included after informed consent. All patients underwent four-phase multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) scanning from which renal volume data were extracted to create life-size patient-specific 3D printed models. Patient knowledge and understanding were evaluated before and after 3D model presentation. Patients’ satisfaction with their specific 3D printed model was also assessed through a visual scale.

Results

After viewing their personal 3D kidney model, patients demonstrated an improvement in understanding of basic kidney physiology by 16.7 % (p = 0.018), kidney anatomy by 50 % (p = 0.026), tumor characteristics by 39.3 % (p = 0.068) and the planned surgical procedure by 44.6 % (p = 0.026).

Conclusion

Presented herein is the initial clinical experience with 3D printing to facilitate patient’s pre-surgical understanding of their kidney tumor and surgery.

Keywords

3D printing Renal cancer Kidney tumors Partial nephrectomy Education 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Fondation ARC pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (SAE20131200704) : Dr Jean-Christophe Bernhard; Association Française d'Urologie (AFU) (AFU-2013) : Dr Jean-Christophe Bernhard; The Glenn & Wendy Miller/Inderbir Gill Kidney Cancer Program : Inderbir S Gill.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standard

The study was IRB approved. All patients received oral information about the objectives and methodology of the study, and informed written consent was obtained from all participants before inclusion. All CT images were anonymized before use for 3D modeling.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Christophe Bernhard
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Shuji Isotani
    • 4
  • Toru Matsugasumi
    • 1
  • Vinay Duddalwar
    • 5
  • Andrew J. Hung
    • 1
  • Evren Suer
    • 1
  • Eduard Baco
    • 1
  • Raj Satkunasivam
    • 1
  • Hooman Djaladat
    • 1
  • Charles Metcalfe
    • 1
  • Brian Hu
    • 1
  • Kelvin Wong
    • 1
  • Daniel Park
    • 1
  • Mike Nguyen
    • 1
  • Darryl Hwang
    • 5
  • Soroush T. Bazargani
    • 1
  • Andre Luis de Castro Abreu
    • 1
  • Monish Aron
    • 1
  • Osamu Ukimura
    • 1
  • Inderbir S. Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.The Glenn & Wendy Miller/Inderbir Gill Kidney Cancer Program, USC Institute of UrologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyCHU of Bordeaux – University of BordeauxBordeaux CedexFrance
  3. 3.French Research network on Kidney Cancer (UroCCR)BordeauxFrance
  4. 4.Department of UrologyTeikyo UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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