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World Journal of Urology

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 247–256 | Cite as

Ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy: technologic advancements

  • B. Alexander
  • A. I. Fishman
  • M. Grasso
Topic Paper

Abstract

Ureteroscopic lithotripsy has evolved since the first reported cases employing rigid rod-lens endoscopes and stiff ultrasonic lithotrites. Fiber optics facilitated rigid endoscope miniaturization and the development of a steerable, deflectable flexible ureteroscopes. Over 30 years of technical innovations culminating in digital imagers and powerful, precise laser lithotrites, complimented by progressive endoscopic techniques have produced efficient endoscopic therapies with minimal morbidity and commonly performed in an outpatient setting.

Keywords

Ureteroscopy Laser lithotripsy Flexible ureteroscope Digital ureteroscope Ureteral stone Lower pole stone 

Notes

Conflict of interest

Dr. Michael Grasso serves as a consultant to Karl Storz Endoscopy.

Disclosure

Dr. Michael Grasso serves as a consultant to Karl Storz Endoscopy.

Ethical standard

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

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