Awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related diseases are still dramatically insufficient in the era of high-coverage vaccination programs
Assess knowledge and awareness concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV-associated diseases, and the existence of a specific vaccine among non-HPV-screened Caucasian-European adults after the market introduction of HPV vaccines.
A cohort of 934 consecutive patients seeking their first medical help for uroandrologic purposes anonymously completed a 17-item questionnaire related to HPV. Data were compared with those of an age-comparable cohort of nurses (controls; n = 172).
Knowledge and awareness of HPV infection were reported in 564 (51 %) and 735 (66.5 %) participants, respectively. Overall, 51.3 % participants were informed that HPV is sexually transmitted, but most reported not being aware that HPV infection can be associated with anogenital warts (61.7 %), female genitalia (46.6 %), penile (58.5 %), and oropharyngeal cancer (79.7 %). Only 36.5 % of the participants were informed regarding the existence of a specific vaccine. HPV knowledge was retrieved through the media and/or the Internet, at school, doctors, and relatives or friends in 395 (35.7 %), 155 (14 %), 97 (8.8 %), and 88 (8.0 %) participants, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that female gender [odds ratio (OR) 3.08; p < 0.001; 95 % confidence interval 2.18–4.35] and educational status [high school diploma versus primary–secondary (OR 1.61; p = 0.03; 1.04–2.51); university degree versus primary–secondary (OR 2.89; p < 0.001; 1.83–4.57)] were significantly associated with awareness of HPV.
Only approximately half of the participants reported knowing what HPV infection is, even after the approval and market introduction of the HPV vaccine. Awareness about the existence and availability of a HPV vaccine was even lower.
KeywordsInfertile couple Sexual dysfunction Awareness Human papillomavirus Anogenital warts Vaccine Cancer
- 3.Vardas E, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, Palefsky JM, Moreira ED Jr, Penny ME, Aranda C, Jessen H, Moi H, Ferris DG, Liaw KL, Marshall JB, Vuocolo S, Barr E, Haupt RM, Garner EI, Guris D (2011) External genital human papillomavirus prevalence and associated factors among heterosexual men on 5 continents. J Infect Dis 203:58–65PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Palefsky JM, Rubin M (2009) The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 36:187–200Google Scholar
- 6.Kirrander P, Kolaric A, Helenius G, Windahl T, Andrén O, Stark JR, Lillsunde-Larsson G, Elgh F, Karlsson M (2011) Human papillomavirus prevalence, distribution and correlation to histopathological parameters in a large Swedish cohort of men with penile carcinoma. BJU Int 108:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Malloy KM, Ellender SM, Goldenberg D, Dolan RW (2013) A survey of current practices, attitudes, and knowledge regarding human papillomavirus-related cancers and vaccines among head and neck surgeons. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.4452 (Epub ahead of print)
- 9.Giuliano AR, Nielson CM, Flores R, Dunne EF, Abrahamsen M, Papenfuss MR, Markowitz LE, Smith D, Harris RB (2007) The optimal anatomic sites for sampling heterosexual men for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection: the HPV detection in men study. J Infect Dis 196:1146–1152PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Muñoz N, Manalastas R Jr, Pitisuttithum P, Tresukosol D, Monsonego J, Ault K, Clavel C, Luna J, Myers E, Hood S, Bautista O, Bryan J, Taddeo FJ, Esser MT, Vuocolo S, Haupt RM, Barr E, Saah A (2009) Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24–45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet 373:1949–1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Giuliano AR, Palefsky JM, Goldstone S, Moreira ED Jr, Penny ME, Aranda C, Vardas E, Moi H, Jessen H, Hillman R, Chang YH, Ferris D, Rouleau D, Bryan J, Marshall JB, Vuocolo S, Barr E, Radley D, Haupt RM, Guris D (2011) Efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against HPV Infection and disease in males. N Engl J Med 364:401–411PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Castle PE, Rodríguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Alfaro M, Morales J, Guillen D, Sherman ME, Solomon D, Schiffman M, Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste (PEG) Group (2009) Short term persistence of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical precancer and cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ 339:b2569CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Anttila A, Kotaniemi-Talonen L, Leinonen M, Hakama M, Laurila P, Tarkkanen J, Malila N, Nieminen P (2010) Rate of cervical cancer, severe intraepithelial neoplasia, and adenocarcinoma in situ in primary HPV DNA screening with cytology triage: randomised study within organised screening programme. BMJ 340:c1804CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar