World Journal of Urology

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 389–395

The IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers of susceptibility to bladder cancer: a case–control study

  • S. T. Bozdoğan
  • B. Erol
  • A. Dursun
  • G. Bozdoğan
  • I. Dönmez
  • N. A. Mungan
  • G. Seydaoglu
Original Article



We investigated the relationship between the distribution of the IL-1RN, TNF-β and IL-4 polymorphism and the clinical features of bladder cancer.

Materials and methods

A total of 100 patients with bladder carcinoma and 102 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. The IL-1RN, IL-4 and TNF-β gene polymorphisms were identified by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism-based analysis. Allelic frequencies were compared between patient and the controls. Tumor stage, histopathological grade, tumor size/number and smoking condition were evaluated with IL-1RN, IL-4 and TNF-β gene polymorphisms.


Allele distribution frequencies of IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms were significantly different between patients and control groups. However, allele distribution of TNF-β gene was not statistically significant. There was no difference in allele distribution of the three genes in both groups regarding stage, tumor size, number of tumors and smoking condition. Although allele distribution of IL-4 gene showed significant difference considering histopathological grades in both smoking and total patients group, allele distribution of IL-1RN and TNF-β was not different.


The present research suggests that the IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers of susceptibility to bladder cancer. In the future, clinical improvements on diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of bladder carcinoma are expected owing to development of more sensitive and specific tests for genetic polymorphisms of cytokines that are effective on inflammation.


Bladder carcinoma Gene polymorphisms IL-1RN IL-4 TNF-β 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. T. Bozdoğan
    • 1
  • B. Erol
    • 2
  • A. Dursun
    • 3
  • G. Bozdoğan
    • 4
  • I. Dönmez
    • 5
  • N. A. Mungan
    • 5
  • G. Seydaoglu
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Medical Genetics, Medical FacultyMersin UniversityMersinTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineIstanbul Medeniyet UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Medical Genetics, Medical FacultyBulent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey
  4. 4.Department of UrologyForum Yasam HospitalMersinTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Urology, Medical FacultyBülent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey
  6. 6.Department of Biostatistics, Medical FacultyCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

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