World Journal of Urology

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1251–1257 | Cite as

The relationship between solar UV exposure, serum vitamin D levels and serum prostate-specific antigen levels, in men from New South Wales, Australia: the CHAMP study

  • Visalini Nair-Shalliker
  • David P. Smith
  • Mark Clements
  • Vasikaran Naganathan
  • Melisa Litchfield
  • Louise Waite
  • David Handelsman
  • Markus J. Seibel
  • Robert Cumming
  • Bruce K. Armstrong
Original Article



We aim to determine the relationship between season, personal solar UV exposure, serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.


Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected at baseline from participants of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (n = 1,705), aged 70 and above. They were grouped as men ‘free of prostate disease’ for those with no record of having prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostatitis and with serum PSA levels below 20 ng/mL, and ‘with prostate disease’ for those with a record of either of these diseases or with serum PSA levels 20 ng/mL or above. Personal solar UV exposure (sUV) was estimated from recalled hours of outdoor exposure and weighted against ambient solar UV radiation. Sera were analysed to determine levels of PSA, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for age, BMI and region of birth.


The association between sUV and serum PSA levels was conditional upon season (p interaction  = 0.04). There was no direct association between serum PSA and 25(OH)D in both groups of men. There was a positive association between serum PSA and 1,25(OH)2D in men with prostate disease (mean = 110.6 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.03), but there was no such association in men free of prostate disease (mean = 109.3 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.8).


The association between PSA and sUV may only be evident at low solar UV irradiance, and this effect may be independent of serum vitamin D levels.


Season Solar UV 25(OH)D 1,25(OH)2PSA Australia 



Personal solar UV exposure


New South Wales


The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project


Prostate-specific antigen


Parathyroid hormone


European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer



This study was funded by the Cancer Council New South Wales project Grant (512513).

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest for any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 115 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 88 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Visalini Nair-Shalliker
    • 1
    • 2
  • David P. Smith
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mark Clements
    • 4
  • Vasikaran Naganathan
    • 5
  • Melisa Litchfield
    • 5
  • Louise Waite
    • 5
  • David Handelsman
    • 6
  • Markus J. Seibel
    • 6
    • 7
  • Robert Cumming
    • 2
    • 5
  • Bruce K. Armstrong
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Research DivisionCancer Council New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Sydney School of Public HealthThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Griffith Health InstituteGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  5. 5.Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, Concord HospitalUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  6. 6.ANZAC Research InstituteThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  7. 7.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismConcord HospitalSydneyAustralia

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