The relationship between solar UV exposure, serum vitamin D levels and serum prostate-specific antigen levels, in men from New South Wales, Australia: the CHAMP study
We aim to determine the relationship between season, personal solar UV exposure, serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.
Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected at baseline from participants of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (n = 1,705), aged 70 and above. They were grouped as men ‘free of prostate disease’ for those with no record of having prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostatitis and with serum PSA levels below 20 ng/mL, and ‘with prostate disease’ for those with a record of either of these diseases or with serum PSA levels 20 ng/mL or above. Personal solar UV exposure (sUV) was estimated from recalled hours of outdoor exposure and weighted against ambient solar UV radiation. Sera were analysed to determine levels of PSA, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for age, BMI and region of birth.
The association between sUV and serum PSA levels was conditional upon season (p interaction = 0.04). There was no direct association between serum PSA and 25(OH)D in both groups of men. There was a positive association between serum PSA and 1,25(OH)2D in men with prostate disease (mean = 110.6 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.03), but there was no such association in men free of prostate disease (mean = 109.3 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.8).
The association between PSA and sUV may only be evident at low solar UV irradiance, and this effect may be independent of serum vitamin D levels.
KeywordsSeason Solar UV 25(OH)D 1,25(OH)2D PSA Australia
Personal solar UV exposure
New South Wales
The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project
European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer
This study was funded by the Cancer Council New South Wales project Grant (512513).
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest for any of the authors.
- 3.Lujan GM, Pascual MC, Rodriguez GN, Garcia Mediero JM, Pascual DT, Paez BA, Berenguer SA (2006) Impact of the weather on the serum levels of prostatic specific antigen (PSA). Arch Esp Urol 59:247–252Google Scholar
- 4.Salama G, Noirot O, Bataille V, Malavaud S, Rebillard X, Villers A et al (2007) Seasonality of serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a population-based study. Eur Urol 52(3):708–714Google Scholar
- 9.Travis RC, Crowe FL, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Roddam AW, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Linseisen J, Kaaks R, Boeing H, Kroger J, Trichopoulou A, Dilis V, Trichopoulos D, Vineis P, Palli D, Tumino R, Sieri S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJ, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Larranaga N, Gonzalez CA, Arguelles MV, Sanchez MJ, Stattin P, Hallmans G, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Rinaldi S, Slimani N, Jenab M, Riboli E, Key TJ (2009) Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am J Epidemiol 169:1223–1232PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Ferlay J, Parkin DM, Curado MP et al. (2010) Cancer incidence in five continents, volumes I to IX: IARC. Lyon, France: International agency for research on cancer. Available from: http://ci5.iarc.fr
- 18.Wagner D, Trudel D, Van der Kwast T, Nonn L, Giangreco AA, Li D, Dias A, Cardoza M, Laszlo S, Hersey K, Klotz L, Finelli A, Fleshner N, Vieth R (2013) Randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 doses on prostatic vitamin d metabolite levels and Ki67 labeling in prostate cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:1498–1507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/scienceandeducation/monitoringandsurveillance/ Accessed date: 2007. Ref Type: Generic