Epidemiological gender-specific aspects in urolithiasis
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The incidence of urolithiasis is worldwide increasing and contributes to a rising economic and health care burden. The objective of this review is to identify gender differences in urolithiasis epidemiology in Europe and the USA as well as gender-specific risk factors for urolithiasis.
A systematic review of the present literature was performed including English journals without a time limit. The MeSH terms used were as follows: (“Sex Characteristics”[Mesh]) AND “Urolithiasis”[Mesh] or (“Epidemiology”[Mesh]) AND “Urolithiasis”[Mesh]. Additionally, reference search of retrieved papers identified additional references. The MEDLINE database was searched.
The prevalence of urolithiasis is rising worldwide including both genders in different age groups. Especially women face an increase in prevalence in the USA. Overweight seems to be an important cause for this development. Additionally insulin resistance and hypertonia, conditions present in the metabolic syndrome complex, contribute to this phenomenon.
Stone prevalence across all age groups and both genders is increasing. Lifestyle changes along with increasing prevalence of obesity are key factors for this development. Female gender did significantly differ in the risk ratio of stone development in different variables including body mass index, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension. It is important to inform the public on measures how to change lifestyle and dietary measures for preventing or lowering events of stone disease.