Oncologic outcomes obtained after neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract: a review
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Nephroureterectomy with excision of a bladder cuff is the gold standard in the treatment of upper urinary tract carcinomas (UTUC). But especially for patients suffering from advanced tumor stages, life expectancy has not improved over the years with local recurrence or distant metastases being the main reasons for treatment failure. Chemotherapy in an adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting seems therefore to be a promising approach.
The literature of the last 20 years was searched using Medline. Articles were chosen by using the given abstracts. Only articles written in English and not older than 20 years were considered.
Most information concerning chemotherapy of urothelial carcinomas is gained from studies comprising patients suffering from lower urinary tract carcinomas. The combination of methotrexate, adriamycin, vinblastine and cisplatin as well as the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin are the most used chemotherapy regimens in advanced UCC and have shown beneficial results. The summarized data of studies for UTUC contained no level one information. Down staging effects as well as prolongation of survival have been shown for some patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but because of the small study groups and the retrospective design, no definite conclusions can be drawn from these results. In addition, there exists an uncertainty for preoperative staging. Results for adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking.
No definite recommendations for peri-operative chemotherapy in UTUC can be derived from the current literature. Current therapy is largely based on extrapolation from the bladder cancer literature. Prospective studies dedicated to UTUC are needed.
KeywordsUpper urinary tract carcinoma Adjuvant chemotherapy Neoadjuvant chemotherapy Transitional cell carcinoma
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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