World Journal of Urology

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 127–133 | Cite as

The association of cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

  • Ben Liu
  • Qiqi Mao
  • Yiwei Lin
  • Feng Zhou
  • Liping Xie
Original Article

Abstract

Objective

This meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer.

Methods

Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of cruciferous vegetables were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated.

Results

Five cohort and five case–control studies were included. A significantly decreased risk with bladder cancer was observed in overall cruciferous vegetables intake group (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.69–0.92) and subgroup of case–control studies (RR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67–0.89), but not in cohort studies (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.61–1.11). No heterogeneity and publication bias were detected across studies.

Conclusion

Our findings support that cruciferous vegetables intake was related to the decreased risk of bladder cancer. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed prospective studies are needed to explore the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on bladder cancer.

Keywords

Cruciferous vegetables Bladder neoplasms Meta-analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by grant from the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. Y2110120) and the Zhejiang Provincial Medical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2008B090).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley O et al (2011) Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin 61(4):212–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murta-Nascimento C, Schmitz-Drager BJ, Zeegers MP et al (2007) Epidemiology of urinary bladder cancer: from tumor development to patient’s death. World J Urol 25(3):285–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Busby JE, Kamat AM (2006) Chemoprevention for bladder cancer. J Urol 176(5):1914–1920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vainio H, Weiderpass E (2006) Fruit and vegetables in cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 54(1):111–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim MK, Park JH (2009) Conference on “multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems”. Symposium on “nutrition and health”. Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 68(1):103–110Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mettlin C, Graham S (1979) Dietary risk factors in human bladder cancer. Am J Epidemiol 110(3):255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK et al (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 91(7):605–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeegers MP, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2001) Consumption of vegetables and fruits and urothelial cancer incidence: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(11):1121–1128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michaud DS, Pietinen P, Taylor PR et al (2002) Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study. Br J Cancer 87(9):960–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Gago-Dominguez M et al (2004) Carotenoids/vitamin C and smoking-related bladder cancer. Int J Cancer 110(3):417–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holick CN, De Vivo I, Feskanich D et al (2005) Intake of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids, folate, and vitamins A, C, E and risk of bladder cancer among women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 16(10):1135–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sacerdote C, Matullo G, Polidoro S et al (2007) Intake of fruits and vegetables and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in bladder cancer. Mutagenesis 22(4):281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    García-Closas R, García-Closas M, Kogevinas M et al (2007) Food, nutrient and heterocyclic amine intake and the risk of bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer 43(11):1731–1740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Larsson SC, Andersson SO, Johansson JE et al (2008) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17(9):2519–2522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tang L, Zirpoli GR, Guru K et al (2008) Consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17(4):938–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin J, Kamat A, Gu J et al (2009) Dietary intake of vegetables and fruits and the modification effects of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(7):2090–2097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mantel N, Haenszel W (1959) Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 22(4):719–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7(3):177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ et al (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327(7414):557–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Egger M, Smith G, Davey G, Schneider M et al (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315(7109):629–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50(4):1088–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu RH (2004) Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr 134(12 suppl):3479S–3485SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tang L, Zhang Y (2004) Isothiocyanates in the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Curr Drug Metab 5(2):193–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tang L, Zirpoli GR, Guru K et al (2010) Intake of cruciferous vegetables modifies bladder cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(7):1806–1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tang L, Zhang Y, Jobson HE et al (2006) Potent activation of mitochondria mediated apoptosis and arrest in S and M phases of cancer cells by a broccoli sprout extract. Mol Cancer Ther 5(4):935–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tang L, Zhang Y (2005) Mitochondria are the primary target in isothiocyanateinduced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Mol Cancer Therap 4(8):1250–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tang L, Zhang Y (2004) Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cells. J Nutr 134(8):2004–2010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tang L, Li G, Song L, Zhang Y (2006) The principal urinary metabolites of dietary isothiocyanates, N-acetylcysteine conjugates, elicit the same anti-proliferative response as their parent compounds in human bladder cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs 17(3):297–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang Y, Munday R, Jobson HE et al (2006) Induction of GST and NQO1 in cultured bladder cells and in the urinary bladders of rats by an extract of broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem 54(25):9370–9376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM et al (2008) Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts. Cancer Res 68(5):1593–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhattacharya A, Tang L, Li Y et al (2010) Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allyl isothiocyanate. Carcinogenesis 31(2):281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhattacharya A, Li Y, Wade KL et al (2010) Allyl isothiocyanate-rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion. Carcinogenesis 31(12):2105–2110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ding Y, Paonessa JD, Randall KL et al (2010) Sulforaphane inhibits 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA damage in bladder cells and tissues. Carcinogenesis 31(11):1999–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Liu
    • 1
  • Qiqi Mao
    • 1
  • Yiwei Lin
    • 1
  • Feng Zhou
    • 1
  • Liping Xie
    • 1
  1. 1.First Affiliated Hospital, College of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations