World Journal of Urology

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 127–133 | Cite as

The association of cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

  • Ben LiuEmail author
  • Qiqi Mao
  • Yiwei Lin
  • Feng Zhou
  • Liping Xie
Original Article



This meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer.


Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of cruciferous vegetables were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated.


Five cohort and five case–control studies were included. A significantly decreased risk with bladder cancer was observed in overall cruciferous vegetables intake group (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.69–0.92) and subgroup of case–control studies (RR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67–0.89), but not in cohort studies (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.61–1.11). No heterogeneity and publication bias were detected across studies.


Our findings support that cruciferous vegetables intake was related to the decreased risk of bladder cancer. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed prospective studies are needed to explore the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on bladder cancer.


Cruciferous vegetables Bladder neoplasms Meta-analysis 



This study was supported by grant from the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. Y2110120) and the Zhejiang Provincial Medical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2008B090).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qiqi Mao
    • 1
  • Yiwei Lin
    • 1
  • Feng Zhou
    • 1
  • Liping Xie
    • 1
  1. 1.First Affiliated Hospital, College of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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