World Journal of Urology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 171–178 | Cite as

Age-stratified normal values for prostate volume, PSA, maximum urinary flow rate, IPSS, and other LUTS/BPH indicators in the German male community-dwelling population aged 50 years or older

  • Richard Berges
  • Matthias Oelke
Topic Paper



To establish age-stratified normal values for prostate volume, serum total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, maximum urinary flow rate (Q max), micturition and postvoid residual urine volumes, IPSS, and quality of life. These community-derived values of healthy older men are necessary to correctly judge patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).


Analysis of LUTS/BPH-related determinants in community-dwelling men in the city of Herne, Germany after exclusion of subgroups with co-morbidities or co-medications with possible influence on the key items.


The analysis is based on 1,763 participants. In these men aged 50–80 years, mean total prostate volume continuously increased from 24 to 38 cc and mean PSA concentration from 1.1 to 2.5 ng/ml. PSA concentration in men with a prostate volume <25 cc also showed a continuous increase with aging, starting at 0.8 in the youngest and ending at 1.9 ng/ml in the oldest age group. Mean Q max of free uroflowmetry (from 22.1 to 13.7 ml/s) and mean micturition volume (from 329 to 193 cc) showed a continuous decrease that was dependent on prostate size. Mean postvoid residual urine was nearly unchanged over the age groups at approximately 20–30 cc. Although IPSS increased continuously with aging (from 4 to 7), QoL remained unchanged at 2 over the age groups. Prostate size had a minor impact on IPSS.


Normal values for investigated LUTS/BPH-related determinants and the influence of aging hereon should serve as references during the assessment of Caucasian patients in Europe.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia Epidemiology Lower urinary tract symptoms Community-based participatory research Diagnosis Prostate-specific antigen Uroflowmetry Aging 



Benign prostatic enlargement


Benign prostatic hyperplasia


5α-reductase inhibitor


International prostate symptom score


Lower urinary tract symptoms


Prostate-specific antigen


Prostate volume


Maximum urinary flow rate


Quality of life derived from IPSS


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyPAN-KlinikCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department of UrologyHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany

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