World Journal of Urology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 179–184 | Cite as

Prevalence and factors associated with uncomplicated storage and voiding lower urinary tract symptoms in community-dwelling Australian men

  • Sean A. MartinEmail author
  • Matthew T. Haren
  • Villis R. Marshall
  • Kylie Lange
  • Gary A. Wittert
  • Members of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study
Original Article



To determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, voiding and storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a population-based sample of Australian men.


Data were collected from 1,103 men randomly selected, community-dwelling men, as part of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study, after exclusion of men with prostate or bladder cancer or prior surgery to either organ. The presence of LUTS was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score. Urine flow was measured via flow meter. Demographic, clinical, and bio-psychosocial data were collected by questionnaire.


The prevalence of total, storage, and voiding LUTS was 18.1, 28.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The most common storage symptoms were frequency (12.3%), nocturia (9.9%) and urgency (8.1%), and voiding symptoms were weak stream (8.5%), intermittency (5.4%), incomplete emptying (5.1%) and straining (2.4%). There were linear associations between storage LUTS and increased abdominal fat mass, plasma glucose and low HDL cholesterol (components of the metabolic syndrome), obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) risk, and retirement. Voiding symptoms were associated with a previous diagnosis of benign prostatic enlargement (BPH), mean peak urine flow, total energy intake, elevated risk of OSA, erectile dysfunction, physician-diagnosed thyroid dysfunction and higher household income.


The close association of storage LUTS with the metabolic syndrome, and of both storage and voiding LUTS with OSA, suggest that these conditions should be considered in men presenting with LUTS.


Prostatism/epidemiology Urinary tract physiological phenomena Cohort studies Men’s health Australia/epidemiology 



The authors would like to acknowledge the clinic and recruitment staff for their invaluable efforts. Particular thanks are extended to Janet Grant, Sandy Pickering and to staff of the North West Adelaide Health Study for all their assistance. Thanks to Chris Seaborn and Erika Bowden and staff at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital for providing expertise and assistance with DXA procedures. Finally, thanks are extended to our participants and their families for their invaluable contributions. The study was initially supported by The University of Adelaide’s Florey Foundation and is currently partially funded by the South Australian Government’s Men’s Health Program. Matthew T. Haren is supported by an NHMRC Training Fellowship (Public Health) (Grant #: 511345).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean A. Martin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew T. Haren
    • 2
  • Villis R. Marshall
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kylie Lange
    • 4
  • Gary A. Wittert
    • 1
  • Members of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study
    • 1
  1. 1.Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men’s Health, School of Medicine, Discipline of MedicineThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Division of Health Sciences, SANSOM InstituteUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Royal Adelaide HospitalAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Nutritional Physiology, Interventions and Outcomes, Discipline of MedicineThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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