World Journal of Urology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 455–461 | Cite as

High-risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: the case for chemotherapy

Topic Paper

Abstract

Testis cancer is the most frequent solid malignancy in young men. The majority of patients present with clinical stage I disease and about 50% of them are nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. In this initial stage of disease there is a subgroup of patients at high risk with a likelihood of more than 50% for relapse. Treatment options for these patients include: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), albeit 6–10% of patients will relapse outside the field of RPLND, active surveillance with even higher relapse rates and adjuvant chemotherapy. As most of these patients have the chance to become long-term survivors, avoidance of long-term side effects is of utmost importance. This review provides information on the potential of chemotherapy to achieve a higher chance of cure for patients with high-risk clinical stage I disease than its therapeutic alternatives and addresses toxicity and dose dependency.

Keywords

Nonseminomatous Germ cell Chemotherapy High risk Testicular neoplasm 

Notes

Conflict of interest statement

There is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyStaedtisches Klinikum KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital of BernBernSwitzerland

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