World Journal of Urology

, 27:117 | Cite as

Protective effect of trapidil on long-term histologic damage in a rat model of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury

  • Murat Bozlu
  • Deniz Acar
  • Selahittin Cayan
  • Savas Aktas
  • Ahmet Tunckiran
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

Trapidil is an antianginal compound with a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. In recent years, it has been used successfully to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems. We evaluated the effect of trapidil on the long-term histologic damage in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Methods

Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. One group underwent 2 h of testicular torsion; one received pretreatment with trapidil before detorsion; and one group underwent sham operation. All rats underwent bilateral orchiectomy 60 days after the experiment. The mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were determined by histological examination of each testis.

Results

Testicular torsion–detorsion caused a significant decrease in the mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score in the ipsilateral testes, but not in the contralateral testes. The animals treated with trapidil had a significant increase in these histological parameters as compared to the torsion–detorsion group.

Conclusion

Trapidil administration before reperfusion may have the potential to decrease the long-term histologic damage that occurs after experimental testicular torsion. Trapidil is used as an antianginal drug and additional clinical studies are required to elucidate the protective role of trapidil in patients with testicular torsion.

Keywords

Testis Reperfusion injury Trapidil Rats 

Notes

Conflict of interest statement

There is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Visser AJ, Heyns CF (2003) Testicular function after torsion of the spermatic cord. BJU Int 92:200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cuzzocrea S, Riley DP, Caputi AP, Salvemini D (2001) Antioxidant therapy: a new pharmacological approach in shock, inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pharmacol Rev 53:135–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lysiak JJ, Nguyen QA, Kirby JL, Turner TT (2003) Ischemia-reperfusion of the murine testis stimulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase in a pathway to E-selectin expression. Biol Reprod 69:202–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maresta A, Balducelli M, Cantini L, Casari A, Chioin R, Fabbri M, Fontanelli A, Monici Preti PA, Repetto S, De Servi S (1994) Trapidil (triazolopyrimidine), platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, reduced restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: Results of the randomized, double-blind STARC study. Circulation 90:2710–2715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Avlan D, Tamer L, Ayaz L, Polat A, Ozturk C, Ozturhan H, Camdeviren H, Aksoyek S (2006) Effects of trapidil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Pediatr Surg 41:1686–1693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gocer AI, Ildan F, Tuna M, Polat S, Tamer L, Erman T, Kaya M (2001) Effects of trapidil on ATPase, lipid peroxidation, and correlation with ultrastructure in experimental spinal cord injury. Neurosurg Rev 24:136–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bagdatoglu C, Saray A, Surucu HS, Ozturk H, Tamer L (2002) Effect of trapidil in ischemia/reperfusion injury of peripheral nerves. Neurosurgery 51:212–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colak T, Polat A, Bagdatoglu O, Kanik A, Turkmenoglu O, Aydin S (2003) Effect of trapidil in ischemia/reperfusion injury on rat small intestine. J Invest Surg 16:167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Somuncu S, Cakmak M, Erdogan S, Caglayan O, Akman H, Kaya M (2006) Protective effects of trapidil in ischemia-reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion and detorsion: an experimental study. Int J Urol 13:601–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bozlu M, Eskandari G, Çayan S, Canpolat B, Akbay E, Atik U (2003) The effect of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on biochemical changes in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Urol 169:1870–1873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bozlu M, Coskun B, Cayan S, Acar D, Aktas S, Ulusoy E, Akbay E (2004) Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase decreases long-term histologic damage in testiscular ischemia-reperfusion injury. Urology 63:791–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tunckiran A, Cayan S, Bozlu M, Yilmaz N, Acar D, Akbay E (2005) Protective effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on histologic changes in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fertil Steril 84:468–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnsen SG (1970) Testicular biopsy score count-A method for registration of spermatogenesis in human testis: normal values and result in 352 hypogonadal males. Hormones 1:2–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nieder J, Claus P, Auguntin W (1995) Effect of trapidil on the PGI2 and TxA2 synthesis in human umbilical veins perfused in vitro. Prostaglandins 49:311–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhou L, Ismaili J, Stordeur P, Thielemans K, Goldman M, Pradier O (1999) Inhibition of the CD40 pathway of monocyte activation by triazolopyrimidine. Clin Immunol 93:232–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arap MA, Vicentini FC, Cocuzza M, Hallak J, Athayde K, Lucon AM, Arap S, Srougi M (2007) Late hormonal levels, semen parameters, and presence of antisperm antibodies in patients treated for testicular torsion. J Androl 28:528–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adivarekar PK, Bhagwat SS, Raghavan V, Bandivdekar AH (2005) Effect of Lomodex-MgSO(4) in the prevention of reperfusion injury following unilateral testicular torsion: an experimental study in rats. Pediatr Surg Int 21:184–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Becker EJ Jr, Turner TT (1995) Endocrine and exocrine effects of testicular torsion in the prepubertal and adult rat. J Androl 16:342–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Payabvash S, Kiumehr S, Tavangar SM, Dehpour AR (2008) Ethyl pyruvate reduces germ cell-specific apoptosis and oxidative stress in rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion. J Pediatr Surg 43:705–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Can C, Tore F, Tuncel N, Uysal O, Gurer F, Ak D, Tuncel M (2004) Protective effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on testicular torsion-detorsion injury: association with heparin-containing mast cells. Urology 63:195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prillaman HM, Turner TT (1997) Rescue of testicular function after acute experimental torsion. J Urol 157:340–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kehinde EO, Anim JT, Mojiminiyi OA, Al-Awadi F, Shihab-Eldeen A, Omu AE, Fatinikun T, Prasad A, Abraham M (2005) Allopurinol provides long-term protection for experimentally induced testicular torsion in a rabbit model. BJU Int 96:175–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lysiak JJ, Nguyen QA, Turner TT (2002) Peptide and nonpeptide reactive oxygen scavengers provide partial rescue of the testis after torsion. J Androl 23:400–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Turner TT, Tung KS, Tomomasa H, Wilson LW (1997) Acute testicular ischemia results in germ cell-specific apoptosis in the rat. Biol Reprod 57:1267–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Savas C, Ozogul C, Karaoz E, Bezir M (2002) Ischemia, whether from ligation or torsion, causes ultrastructural changes on the contralateral testis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 36:302–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uz E, Sogut S, Sahin S, Var A, Ozyurt H, Gulec M, Akyol O (2002) The protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion. World J Urol 20:264–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Unsal A, Devrim E, Guven C, Eroglu M, Durak I, Bozoklu A, Balbay MD (2004) Propofol attenuates reperfusion injury after testicular torsion and detorsion. World J Urol 22:461–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yazihan N, Ataoglu H, Koku N, Erdemli E, Sargin AK (2007) Protective role of erythropoietin during testicular torsion of the rats. World J Urol 25:531–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beheshtian A, Salmasi AH, Payabvash S, Kiumehr S, Ghazinezami B, Rahimpour S, Tavangar SM, Dehpour AR (2008) Protective effects of sildenafil administration on testicular torsion/detorsion damage in rats. World J Urol 26:197–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turner TT (1987) On unilateral testicular and epidymal torsion: no effect on the contralateral testis. J Urol 138:1285–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murat Bozlu
    • 1
  • Deniz Acar
    • 1
  • Selahittin Cayan
    • 1
  • Savas Aktas
    • 2
  • Ahmet Tunckiran
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Mersin School of MedicineMersinTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Histology/EmbryologyUniversity of Mersin School of MedicineMersinTurkey

Personalised recommendations