Advertisement

World Journal of Urology

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 499–504 | Cite as

Serotonin used as prognostic marker of urological tumors

  • Nina Jungwirth
  • Lothar Haeberle
  • Karl Michael Schrott
  • Bernd Wullich
  • Frens Steffen KrauseEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

In regard to therapy and prognosis of urological tumors, specific tumor markers are lacking especially in renal and urinary bladder carcinoma. Our study examines the relevance of serum serotonin levels to urinary bladder, prostate, renal, and testicular carcinoma when it comes to prognosis and occurrence of these oncological conditions.

Materials and methods

Serotonin levels were obtained in 109 patients presenting with urothelial carcinoma to the urinary bladder, adenocarcinoma of the prostate and renal cell carcinoma, as well as presenting with seminomatous and non-seminomatous testicular tumors. All of these conditions varied in grades and metastases. Serum levels were drawn between 7 and 8 a.m. exclusively in order to avoid circadian changes.

Results

Serotonin levels in urothelial carcinoma appeared within pathological range in correlation with tumor stage, life expectancy, and statistical significant with distant metastases. In prostate carcinoma, serotonin levels showed a tendency with organ exceeding growth, Grading/Gleason Score, PSA values >100 ng/ml, and the presence of distant metastases. In renal cell carcinoma, serotonin levels were decreased in patients with lymph node and distant metastases; there was no significant correlation with extent of infiltration. In regard to testicular carcinoma, decreased serotonin levels were merely noted in mixed tumors and the one extragonadal seminoma. Otherwise there was no correlation observed with stage and grade as well as with common tumor markers (AFP/βHCG).

Conclusion

Serotonin levels are suitable for prognostic evaluation of urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and renal cell carcinoma, especially taking into account the lab cost of 25€ per test.

Keywords

Serotonin Prostate carcinoma Urothelial carcinoma to the urinary bladder Renal cell carcinoma Testicular cancer 

Notes

Conflict of interest statement

There is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Schubert- Fritschle G (2005) Nachsorge oder keine Nachsorge-das ist hier die Frage. Der Urologe 44(9):991–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boonpipattanaponq T, Chewatanakornkul S (2006) Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen and albumin in predicting survival in patients with colon and rectal carcinomas. J Clin Gastroenterol 40(7):592–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stapel A, Franke U, Putzki H (1992) Significance of CEA and CA 19-9 for after care of curatively resected colorectal cancers. Zentralbl Chir 117(2):77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bertz J, Giersiepen K, Haberland J, et al (2006) Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bevölkerungsbezogener Krebsregister in Deutschland, Robert Koch Institut Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kufer R, Hautmann R (2006) Dem Nierenzellkarzinom molekularbiologisch auf den Grund gegangen. Der Urologe 45(3):295–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pottsek T (2005) Nachsorge beim Hodentumor lohnt sich. Der Urologe 44(9):1024–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Winter E (2005) Diagnostik des Hodentumors. Dtsch Ärztebl 102(44A):3021–3025Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erspamer V, Vialli M (1951) Presence of enteramine in the skin of Amphibia. Nature 167:1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Twarog BM, Page IH (1953) Serotonin content of some mammalian tissues and urine and a method for its determination. Am J Physiol 175(1):157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Siddiqui EJ, Shabbir M, Mikhailidis DP et al (2006) The effect of serotonin and serotonin antagonists on bladder cancer cell proliferation. BJU Int 97(3):634–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cunningham JL, Grimelius L, Sundin A et al (2007) Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with poorer prognosis. Acta Oncol 46(6):747–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siddiqui EJ, Thompson CS, Mikhailidis DP et al (2005) The role of serotonin in tumor growth. Oncol Rep 14(6):1593–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pyroja S, Joseph B, Paulose CS (2007) Increased 5-HT2C receptor binding in the brain stem and cerebral cortex during liver regeneration and hepatic neoplasia in rats. J Neurol Sci 254:3–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hauso O, Gustafsson BI, Loennechen JP et al (2007) Long-term effects in the rat are prevented by terguride. Regul Pept 143:39–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shuttleworth R, O’Brien J (1981) Intraplatelet serotonin and plasma 5-hydroxindoles in health and disease. Blood 57(3):505–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pawlak D, Malczy E, Darewicz J et al (2000) Platelet serotonergic mechanisms in patients with cancer of the urinary bladder. Thromb Res 98:367–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bostwick DG, Qian J, Pacelli A et al (2002) Neuroendocrine expression in node positive prostate cancer: correlation with systemic progression and patient survival. J Urol 168(3):1204–1211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dah-Shyong Y, Dar-Shih H, Hong-I C et al (2001) The expression of neuropeptides in hyperplastic and malignant prostate tissue and ist possible clinical implications. J Urol 166:871–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dizeyi N, Bjartell A, Nilsson E et al (2004) Expression of serotonin receptors and role of serotonin in human prostate cancer tissue and cell lines. Prostate 59(3):328–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Herder WW (2007) Biochemistry of neuroendocrine tumors. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21(1):33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pinski J, Wang Q, Quek ML et al (2006) Genistein-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Prostate 66(11):1136–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sommerfeld H, Partin A, Pannek J (2002) Incidence of neuroendocrine cells in the seminal vesicles and the prostate—an immunohistochemical study. Int J Urol Nephrol 34:357–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Siddiqui EJ, Shabbir M, Mikhailidis DP et al (2006) The role of serotonin receptors in prostate cancer cell proliferation. J Urol 176:1648–1653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Autorino R, Lamendola MG, De Luca G et al (2007) Neuroendocrine immunophenotype as predictor of clinical recurrence in 110 Patients with prostate cancer. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20(4):765–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gunia S, Albrecht K, Koch S, et al (2008) Ki67 staining index and neuroendocrine differentiation aggravate adverse prognostic parameters in prostate cancer and are characterized by negligible inter-oberserver variability. World J Urol (online version, in print)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kamiya N, Suzuki H, Kawamura K et al (2008) Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancer. Int J Urol 15(5):423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Capdevila J, Maroto P, Algaba F et al (2007) Mixed transitional cell and small cell carcinoma of the bladder with metastases with neuroendocrine histology only. Arch Esp Urol 60(3):306–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dundr P, Pesl M, Povysil C et al (2003) Large endocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with lymphoepithelioma-like features. Pathol Res Pract 199(8):559–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Jungwirth
    • 1
  • Lothar Haeberle
    • 2
  • Karl Michael Schrott
    • 1
  • Bernd Wullich
    • 1
  • Frens Steffen Krause
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Depatment of UrologyUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Biometry/EdidemiologyUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations