Molecular prognostic factors in penile cancer
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Penile cancer is a rare tumour in developed countries but more common in South America and East Africa. Although pathological prognostic factors have been established, there is great interest in evaluating molecular markers which correlate with prognosis and outcome.
We have reviewed the current status of our understanding of the molecular biology of penile cancer in order to identify established and potential prognostic factors in penile cancer. We have conducted an extensive literature search to review the current understanding of the role of prognostic markers in penile cancer.
Although several markers have been evaluated, currently the clinical application of these markers is limited. HPV positive tumours show a variable prognostic outcome. P53 status may correlate with survival in T1 disease but further studies are required to establish the link to lymph node spread.
Pathological variables are well-established but further work is required to investigate the role of molecular markers. The development of molecular prognostic markers is important for the surveillance of patients and prediction of lymph node involvement as well as a prognostic marker for survival.
KeywordsPrognostics Squamous cell carcinoma Penile Molecular
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