Is there evidence for a multidisciplinary follow-up after urological cancer? An evaluation of subsequent cancers
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Follow-up after cancer treatment has been focussing on the detection of local recurrence or metastatic disease of the primary cancer. Subsequent independent malignancies arising during follow-up have not been considered as relevant. Our study evaluated the risk of independent cancers following the diagnosis of primary urological cancer.
Materials and methods
From 1990 to 1998 data from 4,119 patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years were collected. A total of 1,835 patients had primary prostate cancer, 1,269 and 1,015 patients had primary bladder and renal cell cancer, respectively. The most common subsequent malignancies in males were prostate cancer followed by lung and colon cancer. Breast and colon cancer were the most frequently detected subsequent cancers in females. The age correlated comparison of diagnosed and expected cancer in men with primary prostate cancer revealed an increase in relative risk for bladder, kidney and rectal cancer of 3.75, 2.03 and 1.32-fold, respectively. In men with primary bladder cancer the relation for prostate, kidney and lung cancer was 4.05, 2.51 and 2.13-fold, respectively; for females the relation for kidney cancer was 4.55-fold. In men with primary kidney cancer subsequent rectal, prostate and bladder cancer showed a 4.38, 2.91 and 2.48-fold increase, respectively.
These data suggest an increase in relative risk for subsequent urologic and non-urologic cancer during follow-up. Clinicians involved in oncological follow-up need to be aware of this finding. To which degree a follow-up scheme, not solely focussing on the primary urological malignancy could improve survival needs to be evaluated in further studies.