World Journal of Urology

, 25:445

Renal transplant rejection markers

Topic Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00345-007-0211-6

Cite this article as:
Gwinner, W. World J Urol (2007) 25: 445. doi:10.1007/s00345-007-0211-6


Acute rejection is one of the key factors which determine long-term graft function and survival in renal transplant patients. Timely detection and treatment of rejection is therefore, an important goal in the post-transplant surveillance. The standard care with serum creatinine measurements and biopsy upon allograft dysfunction implies that acute rejection is detected in an advanced stage. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring for acute rejection by markers in blood and urine has been tried over the past decades. This review describes the requirements that should be met by non-invasive markers. The experience with single biomarkers and with newer approaches—mRNA expression analysis, metabolomics, and proteomics—will be discussed, including future directions of necessary research.


Kidney Transplantation Biomarker Acute rejection Proteomics 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of NephrologyMedical School HannoverHannoverGermany

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