World Journal of Urology

, 25:445

Renal transplant rejection markers

Topic Paper


Acute rejection is one of the key factors which determine long-term graft function and survival in renal transplant patients. Timely detection and treatment of rejection is therefore, an important goal in the post-transplant surveillance. The standard care with serum creatinine measurements and biopsy upon allograft dysfunction implies that acute rejection is detected in an advanced stage. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring for acute rejection by markers in blood and urine has been tried over the past decades. This review describes the requirements that should be met by non-invasive markers. The experience with single biomarkers and with newer approaches—mRNA expression analysis, metabolomics, and proteomics—will be discussed, including future directions of necessary research.


Kidney Transplantation Biomarker Acute rejection Proteomics 


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© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of NephrologyMedical School HannoverHannoverGermany

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