World Journal of Urology

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 244–250

The effect of labor and/or ovariectomy on rodent continence mechanism—The neuronal changes

  • Karl-Dietrich Sievert
  • Mustafa Emre Bakircioglu
  • Tony Tsai
  • Lora Nunes
  • Tom F. Lue
Free Paper


Many women develop stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after childbirth, but the exact neuronal changes are largely unknown. This study is designed to identify the neuronal changes associated with pregnancy, delivery and ovariectomy. A total of 10 virgin and 48 pregnant rats were used. Cystometry and stress/sneeze tests were performed in the virgin once and the pregnant rats at certain time points. Postpartum the rats were equally grouped as follows: group I: delivery, group II: delivery + ballooning, group III: delivery + ovariectomy, group IV: delivery + ballooning + ovariectomy. Tissues from bladder, bladder neck, and urethra were analyzed by immunostaining for PGP 9.5, CGRP, SP, NPY, VIP, TH, n-NOS. We found complex innervation changes in the different tissue samples. Since the bladder neck and the mid-urethra play an important role in the continence mechanism the neuronal changes in these areas contribute to the observed functional changes.


Genuine stress Stress urinary incontinence Birth trauma Ovariectomy Immunostaining Pregnancy Animal model 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Dietrich Sievert
    • 1
  • Mustafa Emre Bakircioglu
    • 2
  • Tony Tsai
    • 3
  • Lora Nunes
    • 2
  • Tom F. Lue
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of TuebingenTuebingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity of California School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and FertilityThe New York Hospital Medical Center of QueensNew YorkUSA

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