Advertisement

Improving Fruit Coloration, Quality Attributes, and Phenolics Content in ‘Rainier’ and ‘Bing’ Cherries by Gibberellic Acid Combined with Homobrassinolide

  • Meng Li
  • Shunchang Cheng
  • Yan Wang
  • Yu DongEmail author
Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of gibberellic acid (GA3) combined with homobrassinolide (HBR) treatment to improve fruit anthocyanin content, to maintain high-quality properties, to reduce susceptibility to physiological disorders, and to retard the development of bioactive compounds in yellow-fleshed ‘Rainier’ and red-fleshed ‘Bing’ sweet cherries. Application of 1, 5, and 10 mg L−1 HBR once at straw color did not affect anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Rainier’, but 5 or 10 mg L−1 HBR application elevated anthocyanin content in ‘Bing’. No significant differences were observed in fruit size, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity, or surface pitting between the control and HBR treatments in either cultivar after 4 weeks of storage at 0 °C; however, low rates of stem browning and decay were noted in HBR treatments. A single application of GA3 resulted in firmer fruit. Spraying HBR and GA3 to cherries effectively recovered anthocyanin synthesis and increased the levels of phenolics and SSC. Moreover, in combination, these compounds reduced stem browning and pitting development. In conclusion, pre-harvest application of 10 mg L−1 GA3 combined with 5 mg L−1 HBR had a potential to retain the normal skin color development and phenolics synthesis, to increase SSC accumulation, and to reduce fruit susceptibility to disorders in mid-season sweet cherry.

Keywords

Anthocyanin content Homobrassinolide Gibberellic acid Prunus avium Quality attributes Total phenolics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Columbia Gorge Fruit Growers Commission for project funding. We also thank Caixia Li for field and laboratory assistance.

References

  1. Aglar E, Ozturk B, Guler SK, Karakaya O, Uzun S, Saracoglu O (2017) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and ‘Parka’ treatments on fruit quality characteristics of sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium L. ‘0900 Ziraat’) during cold storage and shelf life. Sci Hortic 222:162–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.05.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clayton M, Biasi WV, Agar IT, Southwick SM, Mitcham EJ (2003) Postharvest quality of ‘Bing’ cherries following preharvest treatment with hydrogen cyanamide, calcium ammonium nitrate, or gibberellic acid. HortScience 38:407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clouse SD, Sasse JM (1998) Brassinosteroids: essential regulators of plant growth and development. Annu Rev Plant Biol 49:427–451.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crisosto CH, Crisosto GM, Metheney P (2003) Consumer acceptance of ‘Brooks’ and ‘Bing’ cherries is mainly dependent on fruit SSC and visual skin color. Postharvest Biol Technol 28(1):159–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00173-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong Y, Zhi H, Wang Y (2019) Cooperative effects of pre-harvest calcium and gibberellic acid on tissue calcium content, quality attributes, and in relation to postharvest disorders of late-maturing sweet cherry. Sci Hortic 246:123–128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Drake SR, Elfving DC (2002) Indicators of maturity and storage quality of ‘Lapins’ sweet cherry. HortTechnology 12(4):687–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Du G, Li M, Ma F, Liang D (2009) Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chem 113(2):557–562.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Einhorn TC, Wang Y, Turner J (2013) Sweet cherry fruit firmness and postharvest quality of late-maturing cultivars are improved with low-rate, single applications of gibberellic acid. HortScience 48(8):1010–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engin H, Gökbayrak Z (2015) Effects of 22S, 23S-homobrassinolide and gibberellic acid on formation of double fruits in ‘Bing’ sweet cherry. Acta Hortic 1139:299–302. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1139.52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Engin H, Gökbayrak Z, Sakaldaş M, Duran FU (2015) Role of 22s, 23s-homobrassinolide and GA3 on fruit quality of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry and physiological disorders. Acta Sci Pol Hortorum Cultus 14(5):99–108Google Scholar
  11. Engin H, Gökbayrak Z, Sakaldaş M (2016) Effects of 22S, 23S-homobrassinolide and gibberellic acid on occurrence of physiological disorders and fruit quality of ‘Summit’ and ‘Regina’ sweet cherries. Erwerbs-Obstbau 58(3):203–210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-016-0273-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuleki T, Francis FJ (1968) Quantitative methods for anthocyanins. 1. Extraction and determination of total anthocyanin in cranberries. J Food Sci 33(1): 72–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1968.tb00887.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gonçalves B, Silva AP, Moutinho-Pereira J, Bacelar E, Rosa E, Meyer AS (2007) Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the evolution of colour and anthocyanins in cherries (Prunus avium L.). Food Chem 103(3):976–984.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kappel F, MacDonald RA (2002) Gibberellic acid increases fruit firmness, fruit size, and delays maturity of ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry. J Am Pomol Soc 56(4):219–222Google Scholar
  15. Kappel F, MacDonald RA (2007) Early gibberellic acid sprays increase firmness and fruit size of ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry. J Am Pomol Soc 61(1):38–43Google Scholar
  16. Kucuker E, Ozturk B (2015) The effects of aminoethoxyvinylglycine and methyl jasmonate on bioactive compounds and fruit quality of ‘North Wonder’ sweet cherry. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 12(2):114–119.  https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v12i2.17114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mandava NB (1988) Plant growth-promoting brassinosteroids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39(1):23–52.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.39.060188.000323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mandava B, Wang Y (2015) Effect of brassinosteroids on cherry maturation, firmness and fruit quality. Acta Hortic 1139, 451–458. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1139.78 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martinez GA, Chaves AR, Anon MC (1996) Effect of exogenous application of gibberellic acid on color change and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chlorophyllase, and peroxidase activities during ripening of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch). J Plant Growth Regul 15:139–146.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00198929 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ozkan Y, Ucar M, Yildiz K, Ozturk B (2016) Pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments play an important role on bioactive compounds and fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars. Sci Hortic 211:358–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.08.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saracoglu O, Ozturk B, Yildiz K, Kucuker E (2017) Pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatments delayed ripening and improved quality of sweet cherry fruits. Sci Hortic 226:19–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sasse JM (2003) Physiological actions of brassinosteroids: an update. J Plant Growth Regul 22(4):276–288.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-003-0062-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Serrano M, Guillén F, Martínez-Romero D, Castillo S, Valero D (2005) Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of sweet cherry at different ripening stages. J Agric Food Chem 53(7):2741–2745.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0479160 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Serrano M, Díaz-Mula HM, Zapata PJ, Castillo S, Guillén F, Martínez-Romero D, Valverde JM, Valero D (2009) Maturity stage at harvest determines the fruit quality and antioxidant potential after storage of sweet cherry cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 57(8):3240–3246.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803949k CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Toivonen PMA, Kappel F, Stan S, McKenzie DL, Hocking R (2004) Firmness, respiration, and weight loss of ‘Bing’, ‘Lapins’ and ‘Sweetheart’ cherries in relation to fruit maturity and susceptibility to surface pitting. HortScience 39:1066–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vardhini BV, Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2006) Brassinosteroids-new class of plant hormone with potential to improve crop productivity. Indian J Plant Physiol 11(1):1–12Google Scholar
  27. Wang Y, Einhorn TC (2013) Optimizing preharvest application rate of gibberellic acid (GA3) and homobrassinolide (HBR) to improve shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Acta Hortic 1161, 411–416. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1161.66 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang C, Whiting MD (2011a) Improving ‘Bing’ sweet cherry fruit quality with plant growth regulators. Sci Hortic 127:341–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang C, Whiting M (2011b) Pre-harvest foliar application of prohexadione-Ca and gibberellins modify canopy source-sink relations and improve quality and shelf-life of ‘Bing’ sweet cherry. Plant Growth Regul 65:145–156.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-011-9584-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhen X, Yue C, Gallardo K, McCracken V, Luby J, McFerson J (2016) What attributes are consumers looking for in sweet cherries? Evidence from choice experiments. Agric Resour Econ Rev 45(1):124–142.  https://doi.org/10.1017/age.2016.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food and BioengineeringZhengzhou University of Light IndustryZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Food ScienceShenyang Agricultural UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture, Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension CenterOregon State UniversityHood RiverUSA

Personalised recommendations