Insect Herbivory of Leaves Affects the Auxin Flux Along Root Apices in Arabidopsis thaliana
- 306 Downloads
Plants reduce their growth rate when confronted by insect attack, and in turn resources are redirected from growth to enhance resistance against herbivory. In this study, one possible signaling cascade was investigated for establishing the underlying mechanism for the slow growth rate that has been observed following insect herbivory. Our results showed that free jasmonate (JA) and auxin levels were elevated in both leaves and roots after Plutella xylostella L. attack which was accompanied by the transcriptional increase of the auxin biosynthetic YUCCA3 and YUCCA8 genes. Further examination of endogenous auxin flux using physiological micro-sensor profiling showed that near the surface of the root transition zone, the net auxin flux decreased after insect attack. Conversely, insect herbivory caused an increase in the net H+ flux along the root surface with the most pronounced response occurring in the transition zone. Transcript levels of auxin transporter genes PIN1, PIN2, PIN3, PIN7, and AUX1 were also reduced after insect attack. Together, the auxin and H+ flux results indicate that the reduced growth after insect attack was likely associated with a decrease of auxin flux and proton secretion along the root tip.
KeywordsInsect herbivory Jasmonic acid Auxin flux Root growth Arabidopsis thaliana
We would like to thank Yue Xu from Xuyue (Beijing) Science and Technology Company for their technical support. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31270655) and the National ‘863’ Plan Project (No. 2011AA10020102).
Yingbai Shen and Suli Yan designed the project. Suli Yan and Chunyang Jiao performed the auxin flux measurement. Ningning Wang and Hongjun Yao performed the H+ flux measurement. Suli Yan and Chunyang Jiao analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. Eric S. McLamore assisted with data analysis, NMT experiments, and manuscript preparation.
- Baluška F, Mancuso S, Volkmann D, Barlow P (2004) Root apices as plant command centres: the ‘brain-like’ status of the root apex transition zone. Biologia 59:1–13Google Scholar
- Qi L, Yan J, Li Y, Jiang H, Sun J, Chen Q, Li H, Chu J, Yan C, Sun X, Yu Y, Li C, Li C (2012) Arabidopsis thaliana plants differentially modulate auxin biosynthesis and transport during defense responses to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. New Phytol 195:872–882CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Staal M, De Cnodder T, Simon D, Vandenbussche F, Van der Straeten D, Verbelen JP, Elzenga T, Vissenberg K (2011) Apoplastic alkalinization is instrumental for the inhibition of cell elongation in the Arabidopsis root by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane – 1-carboxylic acid. Plant Physiol 155:2049–2055CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sun J, Xu Y, Ye S, Jiang H, Chen Q, Liu F, Zhou W, Chen R, Li X, Tietz O, Wu X, Cohen JD, Palme K, Li C (2009) Arabidopsis ASA1 is important for jasmonate-mediated regulation of auxin biosynthesis and transport during lateral root formation. Plant Cell 21:1495–1511CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant Physiology, 4th Revised edn. Sinauer Associates, USAGoogle Scholar
- Zebelo S, Piorkowski J, Disi J, Fadamiro H (2014) Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. BMC Plant Biol 14:140–151CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar