Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 667–679 | Cite as

Proteomic and Antioxidant Analysis Elucidates the Underlying Mechanism of Tolerance to Hyperhydricity Stress in In Vitro Shoot Cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus

  • Sowbiya Muneer
  • Prabhakaran Soundararajan
  • Byoung Ryong Jeong


Hyperhydric disorders occur frequently in plant tissues cultured in vitro and cause several morphological and physiological abnormalities. However, a systematic defense response is triggered by hyperhydric conditions. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activities of antioxidant enzymes and their immunoblots, and the proteome-level changes in normal versus hyperhydric shoots of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultured in vitro were investigated. Total proteins were also extracted from the shoot and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among a total of 700 spots detected, only 40 had significant changes in abundance in the hyperhydric compared to the normal shoots, which were further identified by a mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS). Most of them were involved in photosynthesis, RNA processing, and general metabolisms, while the rest were involved in secondary metabolic processes. These identified proteins in carnation shoots may provide novel evidences for stress tolerance against hyperhydricity.


Antioxidants Carnation Hyperhydricity Mass spectrometer ROS Tissue culture 2-DE 



Second-dimensional gel electrophoresis


Isoelectric focusing


Immobilized pressure gradient


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometer


Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis




Bovine serum albumin


3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate



This work was supported from “Onsite Cooperative Agriculture Research” (Project no. PJ01090805) RDA, Republic of Korea. SM and PS were supported by BK21 Plus program (Brain Korea 21), Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

Author Contributions

SM and BRJ designed the experiments, SM did experiments and analyzed the data, PS cultured and took care of plants, SM and BRJ wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 78 kb)
344_2015_9569_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 13 kb)
344_2015_9569_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (XLSX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sowbiya Muneer
    • 1
  • Prabhakaran Soundararajan
    • 1
  • Byoung Ryong Jeong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus)Gyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Agriculture & Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Research Institute of Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea

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