Interaction of Temperature and Light in the Development of Freezing Tolerance in Plants
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Freezing tolerance is the result of a wide range of physical and biochemical processes, such as the induction of antifreeze proteins, changes in membrane composition, the accumulation of osmoprotectants, and changes in the redox status, which allow plants to function at low temperatures. Even in frost-tolerant species, a certain period of growth at low but nonfreezing temperatures, known as frost or cold hardening, is required for the development of a high level of frost hardiness. It has long been known that frost hardening at low temperature under low light intensity is much less effective than under normal light conditions; it has also been shown that elevated light intensity at normal temperatures may partly replace the cold-hardening period. Earlier results indicated that cold acclimation reflects a response to a chloroplastic redox signal while the effects of excitation pressure extend beyond photosynthetic acclimation, influencing plant morphology and the expression of certain nuclear genes involved in cold acclimation. Recent results have shown that not only are parameters closely linked to the photosynthetic electron transport processes affected by light during hardening at low temperature, but light may also have an influence on the expression level of several other cold-related genes; several cold-acclimation processes can function efficiently only in the presence of light. The present review provides an overview of mechanisms that may explain how light improves the freezing tolerance of plants during the cold-hardening period.
KeywordsChloroplast Cold hardening Excitation Freezing Frost tolerance Photosynthesis Plant hormones Signalling
This work was supported by OTKA 104963. Thanks to Barbara Harasztos for revising the English.
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