Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 440–459 | Cite as

Physiological and Agronomical Aspects of Phytohormone Production by Model Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Belonging to the Genus Azospirillum

  • Fabricio Cassán
  • Jos Vanderleyden
  • Stijn Spaepen
Article

Abstract

The functional analysis of phytohormone production, interaction, and regulation in higher plants has re-emerged in the past 10 years due to spectacular advances in integrative study models. However, plants are not axenic in natural conditions and are usually colonized or influenced directly by different microorganisms such as rhizobacteria of which many have the ability to produce phytohormones. This review summarizes information related to the biosynthesis, metabolism, regulation, physiological role, and agronomical impact of phytohormones produced by the model plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to the genus Azospirillum, considered to be one of the most representative PGPR. We include exhaustive information about the phytohormones auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, and abscisic acid, as well as the plant growth regulators polyamines and nitric oxide. We deal with their metabolism by Azospirillum sp. in chemically defined medium, in plant–microbe interactions, or in the context of the agronomical use of Azospirillum sp.

Keywords

Auxins Gibberellins Cytokinins Abscisic acid Ethylene Inoculants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The review was written in the framework of a bilateral FWO-Vlaanderen-MINCyT research project (VS.011.11N) granted to FC and JV. FC is a researcher of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científico-Tecnológicas (CONICET) and Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (UNRC) and SS is a recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship grant from Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen). Special thanks to Yoav Bashan (CBNOR) and Cecilia Creus (INTA-UNMdP) for providing information to complete the phytohormonal model of Azospirillum sp.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabricio Cassán
    • 1
  • Jos Vanderleyden
    • 2
  • Stijn Spaepen
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal y de la Interacción planta-microorganismoUniversidad Nacional de Río CuartoRío CuartoArgentina
  2. 2.Centre of Microbial and Plant GeneticsKU LeuvenHeverleeBelgium

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