Silicon Application to Rice Root Zone Influenced the Phytohormonal and Antioxidant Responses Under Salinity Stress
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Silicon (Si) application shows beneficial effects on plant growth; however, its effects on the phytohormone and enzymatic antioxidant regulation have not been fully understood. We studied the effects of short-term (6, 12, and 24 h) silicon (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) application on salinity (NaCl)-induced phytohormonal [abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA)] and antioxidant regulation in Oryza sativa. The results showed that Si treatments significantly increased rice plant growth compared to controls under salinity stress. Si treatments reduced the sodium accumulation resulting in low electrolytic leakage and lipid peroxidation compared to control plants under salinity stress. Enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) responses were more pronounced in control plants than in Si-treated plants under salinity stress. Stress- and defense-related phytohormones like JA were significantly downregulated and SA was irregular after short-term Si applications under salinity stress compared to control. Conversely, ABA was significantly higher after 6 and 12 h but insignificant after 24 h in Si-treated plants under salinity stress. After 6 and 12 h, Si and salinity stress resulted in upregulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 and 4 (NCED1 and 4), whereas 24-h treatments significantly downregulated the expressions of these genes compared to those in the control. NCED3 expression increased after 6 and 24 h but it was insignificant after 12 h of Si application compared to control. The current findings indicate that increasing the Si concentrations for longer periods of time can regulate the salinity-induced stress by modulating phytohormonal and enzymatic antioxidants’ responses.
KeywordsAbscisic acid biosynthesis Enzymatic antioxidant Phytohormone Silicon Salinity stress
This research study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) founded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008183).
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