Advertisement

Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 137–149 | Cite as

Silicon Application to Rice Root Zone Influenced the Phytohormonal and Antioxidant Responses Under Salinity Stress

  • Yoon Ha Kim
  • Abdul Latif Khan
  • Muhammad Waqas
  • Jae Kyoung Shim
  • Duck Hwan Kim
  • Kyeong Yeoll Lee
  • In Jung Lee
Article

Abstract

Silicon (Si) application shows beneficial effects on plant growth; however, its effects on the phytohormone and enzymatic antioxidant regulation have not been fully understood. We studied the effects of short-term (6, 12, and 24 h) silicon (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) application on salinity (NaCl)-induced phytohormonal [abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA)] and antioxidant regulation in Oryza sativa. The results showed that Si treatments significantly increased rice plant growth compared to controls under salinity stress. Si treatments reduced the sodium accumulation resulting in low electrolytic leakage and lipid peroxidation compared to control plants under salinity stress. Enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) responses were more pronounced in control plants than in Si-treated plants under salinity stress. Stress- and defense-related phytohormones like JA were significantly downregulated and SA was irregular after short-term Si applications under salinity stress compared to control. Conversely, ABA was significantly higher after 6 and 12 h but insignificant after 24 h in Si-treated plants under salinity stress. After 6 and 12 h, Si and salinity stress resulted in upregulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 and 4 (NCED1 and 4), whereas 24-h treatments significantly downregulated the expressions of these genes compared to those in the control. NCED3 expression increased after 6 and 24 h but it was insignificant after 12 h of Si application compared to control. The current findings indicate that increasing the Si concentrations for longer periods of time can regulate the salinity-induced stress by modulating phytohormonal and enzymatic antioxidants’ responses.

Keywords

Abscisic acid biosynthesis Enzymatic antioxidant Phytohormone Silicon Salinity stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) founded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008183).

References

  1. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105:121–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal GK, Yamazaki M, Kobayashi M, Hirochika R, Miyao A, Hirochika H (2001) Screening of the rice viviparous mutants generated by endogenous retrotransposon Tos17 insertion. Tagging of a zeaxanthin epoxidase gene and a novel OsTATC gene. Plant Physiol 125:1248–1257PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal GK, Jwa NS, Agrawal SK, Tamogami S, Iwahashi H, Rakwal R (2003) Cloning of novel rice allene oxide cyclase (OsAOC): mRNA expression and comparative analysis with allene oxide synthase (OsAOS) gene provides insight into the transcriptional regulation of octadecanoid pathway biosynthetic genes in rice. Plant Sci 164:979–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad R, Zaheer S, Ismail S (1992) Role of silicon in salt tolerance of wheat (Tritium aestivum L.). Plant Sci 85:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpaslan M, Gunes A, Taban S, Erdal I, Tarakcioglu C (1998) Variations in calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese contents of wheat and rice varieties under salt stress. Turk J Agric For 22:227–233Google Scholar
  6. Brady AP, Brown AG, Huff H (1953) The polymerization of aqueous potassium silicate solutions. J Colloid Sci 8(2):252–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choudhury S, Panda P, Sahoo L, Panda SK (2013) Reactive oxygen species signaling in plants under abiotic stress. Plant Signaling Behav 8:e23681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein E (1994) The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11–17PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:641–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Epstein E (2009) Silicon: its manifold roles in plants. Ann Appl Biol 155:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH (1990) Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol 186:407–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gong HJ, Randall DP, Flowers TJ (2006) Silicon deposition in the root reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by reducing by pass flow. Plant Cell Environ 29:1970–1979CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamayun M, Sohn EY, Khan SA, Shinwari ZK, Khan AL, Lee IJ (2010) Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (Glycine max L.). Pak J Bot 42:1713–1722Google Scholar
  14. Han Y, Mhamdi A, Chaouch S, Noctor G (2013) Regulation of basal and oxidative stress-triggered jasmonic acid-related gene expression by glutathione. Plant Cell Environ 36(6):1135–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hara M, Furukawa J, Sato A, Mizoguchi T, Miura K (2012) Abiotic stress and role of salicylic acid in plants. In: Ahmad P, Parsad MNV (eds) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer Science, New York, pp 235–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Imlay JA (2003) Pathways of oxidative damage. Annu Rev Microbiol 57:395–418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jin X, Zhu H (2000) Determination of platinum group elements and gold in geological samples with ICP-MS using a sodium peroxide fusion and tellurium co-precipitation. J Anal At Spectrom 15:747–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kamboj JS, Browning G, Blake PS, Quinlan JD, Baker DA (1999) GC-MS SIM analysis of abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in shoot bark of apple root stocks. J Plant Growth Regul 28:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kar M, Mishra D (1976) Catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase activities during rice leaf senescence. Plant Physiol 57:315–319PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim YH, Khan AL, Hamayun M, Kang SM, Beom YJ, Lee IJ (2011) Influence of short-term silicon application on endogenous physiohormonal levels of Oryza sativa L. under wounding stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 144:1175–1185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kramell R, Atzorn R, Schneider G, Miersch O, Brückner C, Schmidt J, Sembdner G, Parthier B (1995) Occurrence and identification of jasmonic acid and its amino acid conjugates induced by osmotic stress in barley leaf tissue. J Plant Growth Regul 14:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee SC, Luan S (2012) ABA signal transduction at the crossroad of biotic and abiotic stress responses. Plant Cell Environ 35:53–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Liang YC, Ding RX (2002) Influence of silicon on microdistribution of mineral ions in roots of salt-stressed barley as associated with salt tolerance in plants. Sci China (Ser C) 45:298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liang YC, Chen Q, Liu Q, Zhang W, Ding RX (2003) Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Plant Physiol 160:1157–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Liang Y, Wong J, Wei L (2005) Silicon-mediated enhancement of cadmium tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in cadmium contaminated soil. Chemosphere 58:475–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu YG, Christie P (2007) Mechanisms of silicon mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environ Pollut 147:422–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2008) Functions and transport of silicon in plants. Cell Mol Life Sci 65:3049–3057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ma JF, Miyake Y, Takahashi E (2001) Silicon in agriculture. In: Datnoff LE, Korndörfer GH (eds) Silicon as a beneficial element for crop plants. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 17–34Google Scholar
  30. Ma JF, Yamaji N, Mitani-Ueno N (2011) Transport of silicon from roots to panicles in plants. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B87:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCloud ES, Baldwin IT (1997) Herbivory and caterpillar regurgitants amplify the wound-induced increases in jasmonic acid but not nicotine in Nicotiana sylvestris. Planta 203:430–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Van-Breusegem F (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9:1360–1385Google Scholar
  33. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissue by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Oliver SN, Dennis ES, Dolferus R (2007) ABA regulates apoplastic sugar transport and is a potential signal for cold-induced pollen sterility in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 48:1319–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ollas C, Hernando B, Arbona V, Gómez-Cadenas A (2013) Jasmonic acid transient accumulation is needed for abscisic acid increase in citrus roots under drought stress conditions. Physiol Plantarum 147:296–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parveen N, Ashraf M (2010) Salinity tolerance of three range grasses at germination and early growth stages. Pak J Bot 42:1675–1684Google Scholar
  38. Qi QG, Rose PA, Abrams GD, Taylor DC, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998) Abscisic acid metabolism, 3-ketoacylcoenzyme A synthase gene expression, and very-long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Brassica napus embryos. Plant Physiol 117:979–987PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Qin X, Zeevaart JA (1999) The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid biosynthesis in water-stressed bean. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:15354–15361PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rouhier N, Jacquot JP (2008) Getting sick may help plants overcome abiotic stress. New Phytol 180:738–741CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Saleh J, Najafi N, Oustan S, Aliasgharzad N, Ghassemi-Golezani K (2013) Changes in extractable Si, Fe and Mn as affected by silicon, salinity and waterlogging in a sandy loam. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 44:1588–1598Google Scholar
  42. Seo M, Koshiba T (2002) The complex regulation of ABA biosynthesis in plants. Trends Plant Sci 7:41–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Seo M, Koiwai H, Akaba S, Komano T, Oritani T, Kamiya Y, Koshiba T (2000) Abscisic aldehyde oxidase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 23:481–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Seskar M, Shulaev V, Raskin I (1998) Endogenous methyl salicylate in pathogen-inoculated tobacco plants. Plant Physiol 116:387–392PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2000) Molecular responses to dehydration and low temperature: differences and cross-talk between two stress signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:217–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Seki M (2003) Regulatory network of gene expression in the drought and cold stress responses. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:410–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Tuteja N (2007) Abscisic acid and abiotic stress signalling. Plant Signal Behav 2:135–138PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Vaculik M, Landberg T, Greger M, Luxova M, Stolarikova M, Lux A (2012) Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants. Ann Bot 110(2):433–443PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Wasternack C, Stenzel I, Hause B, Hause G, Kutter C, Maucher H, Neumerkel J, Feussner I, Miersch O (2006) The wound response in tomato—role of jasmonic acid. J Plant Physiol 163:297–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Xiong L, Zhu JK (2003) Regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 133:29–36PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Xiong L, Schumaker K, Zhu JK (2002) Cell signaling during cold, drought and salt stress. Plant Cell 14:S165–S183PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Xu S, Li J, Zhang X, Wei H, Cui L (2006) Effects of heat acclimation pretreatment on changes of membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolites, and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in two cool-season turfgrass species under heat stress. Environ Exp Bot 56:274–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yamaji N, Ma JF (2011) Further characterization of a rice silicon efflux transporter, Lsi2. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 57:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yeo AR, Flower SA, Rao G, Welfare K, Senanayake N, Flowers TJ (1999) Silicon reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions and this is accounted for by a reduction in the transpirational bypass flow. Plant Cell Environ 22:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yoshida S, Ohnishi Y, Kitagishi K (1959) Role of silicon in rice nutrition. Soil Plant Food 5:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zarate SI, Kempema LA, Walling LL (2007) Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses. Plant Physiol 143:866–875PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang JH, Liu YP, Pan QH, Zhan JC, Wang XQ, Huang WD (2006) Changes in membrane-associated H+-ATPase activities and amounts in young grape plants during the cross adaptation to temperature stresses. Plant Sci 170:768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhao D, Hao Z, Tao J, Han C (2013) Silicon application enhances the mechanical strength of inflorescence stem in herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.). Sci Hortic 151:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zuccarini P (2008) Effects of silicon on photosynthesis, water relations and nutrient uptake of Phaseolus vulgaris under NaCl stress. Biol Plant 52:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon Ha Kim
    • 1
  • Abdul Latif Khan
    • 2
  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 1
  • Jae Kyoung Shim
    • 1
  • Duck Hwan Kim
    • 1
  • Kyeong Yeoll Lee
    • 1
  • In Jung Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Applied BiosciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences and ChemistryUniversity of NizwaNizwaOman
  3. 3.Crop Physiology Lab, School of Applied BiosciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations